Aurea Gemma <Gallica> 1.2-4 
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[1.2] Varietates igitur salutationum1 secundum diversitatem personarum distinguentes, considerare debemus, quod personarum quedam sunt summe, quedam sublimes, quedam mediocres,|[59v] quedam private, quedam infime. Summe persone sunt, quibus nulla maior, nulla par esse potest, sicut papa et imperator, quod etiam singularitas nominis ostendit. Sublimes sunt reges, patriarche, archiepiscopi, episcopi, duces, marchiones, comites palatini. Mediocres sunt archidiaconi, abbates, decani, prepositi, capicerii, primicerii, thesaurarii, vicecomites, vicedomini, prefecti, consules. Private sunt, qui in honesto officio constitue nullam tamen amministrant dignitatem, ut clerici, milites. Infime sunt rustici, opifices omnes.  igitur] ergo B    sicut] ut B    et imperator] et om. B    comites] add. hic punctum AB    sunt om. B    prepositi decani tr. B    qui] que B  tamen om. B    administrant B  opfices omnes] et omnes opfices B   

1 The phrase 'varieties of salutations' (see also below, 1.29,78) is found before in Hugo of Bologna Rationes dictandi prosaice (ROCKINGER ed. 60) and also appears in the Summa of master Bernardus (Poitiers, Ms. 213, fol. 7r). Peter of Blois borrowed from this passage in his Libellus de arte dictandi rhetorice

[1.2] Distinguishing the varieties of salutations1 according to the diversity of persons, we should consider which of all persons are the highest, which are very high, which are in the middle, which are private and which are lowest. The highest persons are those to whom no one is greater, to whom there can be no peer: the pope and the emperor, which the singularity of the name also shows. Very high persons are kings, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, dukes, marquises, counts palatine. Persons of middle rank are archdeacons, abbots, deans, provosts, sacristans, choir-chiefs, treasurers, viscounts, vicedomini, prefects and consuls. Those persons are private, who though possessing an honorable status, still administer no office, such as clerics and knights. The lowest type of persons are peasants and all handworkers.
[1.3] Si igitur imperator scribat ad papam, talis erit salutatio: .E.2 domino ac patri suo sedis apostolice pontifici .H.3 Dei gratia Romanorum imperator semper augustus debitam cum dilectione reverentiam. Si vero hostis est ecclesie, nomen suum preponet et erit alia salutatio, hoc modo: .H.4 Dei gratia Romanorum imperator semper augustus .G.5 Romanorum pontifici, que Cesaris sunt, Cesari reddere et que Dei, Deo.6 Papa ad imperatorem: .E. servus servorum Dei dilectissimo filio suo .H. Romanorum imperatori augusto gloriosum semper de hoste triumphum vel de barbaris nationibus triumphare vel felicitatem presentis vite et future.|[60r] Si vero hostis est ecclesie7 idem imperator, talis erit salutatio: .G. episcopus servus servorum Dei .H. Dei gratia Romanorum imperatori semper augusto, celestem non offendere imperatorem vel de malis compunctionem. .E.] .A. B    .H.] .F. B    semper] et semper B       .H.] .F. B    semper] et semper B    .G.] .A. B    reddere tr. B post pontifici    Dei] sunt Dei B    .E.] .A. B     .H.].A. B     vite presentis tr. B     idem om. B     .G.] .A. B    .H.] .O. B     semper om. B 

2 Eugene III, pope (1145-1153).  
3 The young king Henry (VI) of Staufen, who ruled the empire in 1147-8, while his royal father Conrad III was away on the Second Crusade. Henry was left in the protection of pope Eugene III; the imperial regents were Wibald, abbot of Stavelot and of Corvey and Henry, archbishop of Mainz. For other appearances of the young king Henry, see Aurea Gemma <Gallica> 1.30 and 2.17, 2.34. The single appearance at 1.31 of the emperor Frederick Barbarossa (1152-1190) is best explained as a later modification. An emperor 'P.' appears at 3a.30.   
4 Henry IV, emperor (1056-1106).  
5 Gregory VII, pope (1075-1085).  
6 Matt. 22.21.  
7 This phrase, which also appears above introducing the address of an emperor hostile to the pope, occurs in Hugo of Bologna Rationes dictandi prosaice (ROCKINGER ed.) 61, where pope Calixtus II (1119-1124) addresses the emperor Henry V (1106-1125). 

[1.3] Thus, if an emperor would write to the pope, the salutation will be thus: To E.,2 his lord and father, pontiff of the apostolic see, H.,3 by the grace of God emperor of the Romans and forever august, a deserved reverence with love. If he is an enemy of the church, one will place the emperor's own name first and there will be another salutation, in this manner: H.,4 by the grace of God emperor of the Romans and forever august, to G.,5 pope of the Romans: Render unto Caesar those things that are of Caesar and unto God those things that are of God.6 A pope to the emperor: E., <bishop>, servant of servants of God, to his beloved son H., august emperor of the Romans, an eternally glorious triumph over the enemy or over barbarous nations or Fortune in this present and in the future life. If indeed that emperor is an enemy to the church,7 the salutation will be as follows: G., bishop, servant of the servants of God, to H., by the grace of God emperor of the Romans, forever august: Do not offend the celestial emperor or Compunction for evil deeds.
[1.4] Si vero papa scribat ad archiepiscopum vel ad regem aliquem, non mutabit salutationem, que talis erit: .E. episcopus servus servorum Dei dilecto filio suo Remensi archiepiscopo salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.  scribat om. B     .E.] .A. B [1.4] If indeed a pope would write to an archbishop or to any king, one will not change the salutation, which will be as follows: E., bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his beloved son <--> archbishop of Reims, greetings and apostolic benediction

 
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© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998
Scrineum © Universitą di Pavia 1999