Aurea Gemma <Gallica> 2.21-27 
Table of contents -- Next section -- Previous section -- Translation 
Main menu

[2.21] Nunc de privilegiis personarum dicendum est. Dicitur autem 'privilegium' quasi privata et singularis lex.1 Unde dicitur "Privilegia paucorum non faciunt legem communem."2 Est autem privilegium singularis dignitas persone supra omnes, que sunt eiusdem conditionis vel dignitatis. Sunt etiam privilegia diversarum personarum et civitatum et ecclesiarum. Idem dicitur privilegium et prerogativa. Dicitur autem prerogativa dignitas alicui persone pre aliis erogata vel collata.

que] qui B      etiam] autem B      civitatum et personarum tr. B

[2.22] Sciendum est itaque, quod privilegia aliquando conferuntur personis personaliter aliquando non personaliter. Set 'persona' duobus modos dicitur,|[76r] secundum naturam et civiliter.

itaque om. B      aliquando non personaliter om. B

[2.23] Secundum naturam sic diffinitur: Persona est rationabilis nature individua substantia.3

[2.24] Civiliter autem sic: Persona est dignitatis excellentia, qua quis preminet in civitate vel ecclesia.4

dignitatis excellentia tr. B

[2.25] Unde est, quod illi5 persone in civitate vel ecclesia6 secundam primam diffinitionem privilegium confertur personaliter, idest singulariter, ita quod nullus sui generis vel eiusdem conditionis cum eo participet.7

Unde B: et queritur add. A      quod om. A      illi B: ille A      persone B: persona A      ecclesia B: habet ibi A punctum interrogativum      in civitate vel ecclesia tr. B post diffinitionem      confertur B: persone add. ABpc      ita B: si add. A

[2.26] Secundum alteram persone diffinitionem aliquando personaliter confertur privilegium persone, aliquando non personaliter. Verbi gratia, Nycolaus papa,8 in decreto quod est de electione summi pontificis: "Propter multiplices" inquit "discordias et seditiones statuimus, ut in electione summi pontificis presentia domini imperatoris intersit. Quod si idem imperator|[12v] interesse non possit, nullatenus electio sine presentia imperialium legatorum celebretur. Hoc autem concedemus personaliter dilecto filio nostro .H.,9 qui in presentiarum rex habetur et Deo propietante futurus imperator speratur."

Propter--intersit] Presentia domini imperatoris intersit hoc propter multiplices discordias et dissensiones statuimus inquit B      posit] poterit B      sine presentia B: sin (sine Aac) presentium A

[2.27] Ecce persone personaliter collatum privilegium. 'Personaliter' dico non 'singulariter'; hic supple: 'personaliter huic imperatori et omnibus eius successoribus.'10 Duplicem habet enim intellectum|[76v] hoc adverbium 'personaliter,' potest enim intellegi 'personaliter' secundum primam acceptationem, idest singulariter, et secundum alteram personaliter, idest secundum dignitatem persone. Aliquando persone personaliter conceditur privilegium, sicut Carnotensi11 episcopo legatio commissa est, non quia episcopus, set quia hic episcopus, idest fidelis sedis apostolice et amicus.

hic supple legi: h. s. AB      enim habet tr. B intelligi personaliter] intelligi B      alteram] aliam B      Carnotensi] a praem. B      non--amicus] quia fidelis fuit et amicus sedis apostolice B

1 This etymology originally appeared in Cicero De legibus 1.3; it first takes this exact form in Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae 5.18, which received wide circulation by its inclusion in Gratian's Decretum D.3 c.3.

2 This phrase appears often as a legal maxim, such as with respect to the 1059 Papstwahldekret (see below, 2.26) in the Summa 'Elegantius in iure divino' seu Coloniensis 3.18 (edd. GERARD FRANSEN and STEPHAN KUTTNER 3.121-122); it also appears in Biblical exegesis, such as in Jerome In Jonam 1...cum privilegia singulorum non possint legem facere communem.

3 Boethius Contra Eutychen et Nestorium (ed. ELSäSSER) 74: Persona est naturae rationalibis individua substantia. This is the definition of person in logic, from the Greek hypostasis, which plays a prominant part in trinitarian theology and Christology. See M. LUTZ-BACHMANN "'Natur' und 'Persona' in den Opuscula Sacra des A.M.S. Boethius" ThPh 58 (1983) 48-70.

4 This definition came from the Greek prosopon, which originally meant mask, and by extension: role, function or rank. Both hypostasis and prosopon were translated into Latin by the term persona.

5 The demonstrative pronoun 'that' (illa) is used here and below (Aurea Gemma <Gallica> 2.41, 2.43, 3a.4, 3a.20, 3a.23, 3b.60 and perhaps 3a.13) as a substitute for a proper name, with similar meaning as the degree zero abbreviation 'N.' (Aurea Gemma <Gallica> 2.14, 2.31, 2.36, 3a.12, 3a.43, 3a.48, 3a.53). The scribe of the Admont manuscript also geminated this pronoun (2.42, 3a.20), perhaps in order to underline the meaning 'such and such, this or that'.

6 This clause has been transmitted in the Admont manuscript as the question "And whence it may be asked: 'Is that person in a church or in a city?'"

7 That is, civic or ecclesiastic officials can also receive singular privileges.

8 Word given in large type exactly match Nicholaus II's 1059 papal election decree (Papstwahldekret = PWD), ed. DETLEV JASPER Das Papstwahldekret von 1059: überlieferung und Textgestalt (Sigmaringen 1986) and primarily from the Königsparagraph (ed. JASPER, genuine text: 104-5 lines 84-91, forged imperial version 101.45-48). This excerpt of the PWD given in the Aurea Gemma <Gallica> was unknown to JASPER or to any previous research on the PWD.

9 Henry IV, king of Germany (1056-1106). He was not crowned emperor until 1084.

10 The Aurea Gemma <Gallica>'s interpretation of the imperial right with respect to papal elections (see also the PWD excerpt given above and note 8) more nearly resembles the forged imperial version of the PWD than the genuine version.

11 Geoffrey de Leves, bishop of Chartres (1116-1149) and papal legate (1132-1143). Geoffrey was a special intimate of of bishop Stephen of Paris and Bernard of Clairvaux, who praised Geoffrey's scrupulous integrity as a legate in De consideratione 5.13 (PL 182.783). Although pope Innocent II acted in 1132 to create a standing legate in France, this act was based on his trust in Geoffrey himself, rather than for the purpose of raising the see of Chartres to the status of legatus natus. Indeed Geoffrey's elevation was meant as a counterweight to Gerald of Angouleme, who supported the antipope Anacletus II and who was the last surviving permanent legate of this type created by Gregory VII. See WILHELM JANSSEN Die päpstlichen Legaten in Frankreich, vom Schisma Anaklets II. bis zum Tode Coelestins III. (1130-1198) Kölner historische Abhandlungen, vol. 6 (Cologne 1961) 18-30 and I.S. ROBINSON The Papacy (1073-1198) (Cambridge 1990) 158 According to ACHILLE LUCHAIRE Études sur les actes de Louis VII (Paris 1885) 154, no. 171, Geoffrey also fulfilled a papal legation in 1147. His legatine activites apparently did not produce any survivng documents: he is not treated in STEFAN WEISS Die Urkunden der päpstlichen Legaten von Leo IX. bis Coelestin III. (1049-1198) (Cologne 1995).

This passage may furnish a terminus post quem for the composition of section II. Bishop Geoffrey is not indicated here as deceased , as would be expected in a discursive passage written after 1149, either by the use of quondam or by verb tenses (cf. the variant reading fuit of the Brugge manuscript, copied after 1198). For a tabular summary of the prosographic dating evidence, see Date of the Aurea Gemma <Gallica>.

© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998
Scrineum © Università di Pavia 1999