Aurea Gemma <Gallica> 2.43-44
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[2.43] It remains that we should speak about those <charters> which contain bills of sale. But because churches and various persons may purchase, it should be seen how these charters should be varied according to aforesaid varieties. If a church purchases a possession, I say he who represents the person1 of that church shall strengthen that charter with his seal and the charter will be made in his person. But if any person buys something, his name and the name of the seller shall be noted in the charter and the names of the witnesses, in whose presence the sale was celebrated. And it should be known that charters are of little or no weight, which are not strengthened by the seals of those persons, for whom it is legal to have seals. Therefore, he who wishes to repress all calumny of malign men, strengthens his charter with the seal of the bishop or the duke or the count or the prince of that land.

[2.44] The same should be conserved in sales of serfs or in exchanges and manumissions of serfs. The same will be observed of money lent or committed. For one observing this it will be easy to compose the form of any charter and to execute the peculiar nature of each, because there is nothing more disgraceful than to confound the properties of diverse things.

1 See above Aurea Gemma <Gallica> 1.74, 2.38.

© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998
Scrineum © Universitą di Pavia 1999