[2.4.1] A confirmation is a written corroboration of some promise or act. It is made without witnesses or even with subscribed witnesses, if the matter is difficult and a peril to its trustworthiness is feared. It can also be made without appending a penalty clause. The year of the Lord's incarnation is not necessarily included, unless perchance sometime the matter requires. A confirmation differs from an actio, because an actio can be made without a salutation, a confirmation cannot. For example:
[2.4.2] L.,1 by the grace of God archbishop of the church of Magdeburg, to all the faithful, greetings in the Lord, or: to the beloved brethren in Christ, R.2 senior provost of the same place, C. deacon and the whole chapter, greetings and fraternal charity in the Lord.
[2.4.3] When our faithful <son>, lord H., your fellow canon, had arranged to visit Bologna, he was quite detained from his goal, since he was obliged by some quantity of debt and on this account he could not devote sufficent labor to study.
[2.4.4] Thus, having considered the faithfulness of his service, with which he was devoted to us, we grant to him, that if should depart for a period of study, the income of the benefices, which he holds from our hand or by the brethren's choice, should accrue during one year for payment of his debt.
[2.4.5] The year of the Lord is necessarily placed here.
1 Ludolf von Kroppenstedt, archbishop of Magdeburg (1192-1205).
2 Rokerus, provost of the cathedral chapter of Magdeburg.
© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998
Scrineum © Universitą di Pavia 1999