The French model was compiled in the county of Champagne ca. 1159 (see below, nos. 11-12) and was probably transmitted eastwards shortly thereafter. This transmission took place either from the court of Henry I (the Liberal), count of Champagne (1152-1181) or via the court of his uncle Henry, bishop of Troyes' (1145-1169). Both men were related to the Sponheimer dukes of Carinthia. The actual carrier may have been Herman II, duke of Carinthia (1161-1181), the count's cousin and the bishop's nephew. In 1162 duke Hermann accompanied the emperor Frederick Barbarossa to the abortive meeting with king Louis VII of France to be held at St. Jean-de-Losne on the Saône.
The copying work was executed by a single scribe, except for portions of the last two folios (below, nos. 44-45), which seem to be slightly later additions. The scribe may have worked at Gurk, or at the Cistercian monastery Viktring, founded in 1138 by the above-mentioned Henry, bishop of Troyes, who may have endowed his foundation with the French exemplar.
Although this book is not found in the Admont librarian Peter of Arbon's first book-list of 1376, it is described in his second inventory of 1380: Item regule versuum, incipit 'Nos tractaturi de metris'; in fine interpretationes verborum. Thus Admont acquired it in the years 1376-1380. Another Admont librarian, JAKOB WICHNER, calculated that the library increased by at least 182 books during those years, while ADALBERT KRAUSE counted 249 new books. Admont's gains came at the expense of other medieval Austrian libraries. Viktring may have been one of these.
For a critical edition of Peter of Arbon's book lists: GERLINDE MOESER-MERSKY Mittelalterliche Bibliothekskatalogen Oesterreichs (Vienna 1961) 3.15-34.
On the Admont Stiftsbiblothek: JAKOB WICHNER "Die Bibliothek der Abtei Admont mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Zustandes in der zweiten Hälfte des 14. Jahrh." Mitteilungen des historischen Vereins für Steiermark 20 (1873) 67-90; IDEM Katalog der Handschriften in Stift Admont (1888 Admont manuscript, photocopy from University Microfilms 1983) 279; IDEM "Zwei Bücherverzeichnisse des 14. Jahrh. in der Admonter Stiftsbibliothek" in Beihefte zum Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen 4.2.497-531 (Leipzig, O. Harrassowitz, 1889); A. MUCHAR "Handschriften des Stiftes Admont in Steiermark" ed. G. HAENEL in Neue Jahrbücher für Philologie und Pädagogik. Supplement-Band 6 (1840) 421-444; ADALBERT KRAUSE "Die Bibliothek des Benediktinerstiftes Admont in Steiermark" Sankt Wiborada 2 (1934) 47-56; K. Arnold "Admont und die monastische Reform des 12. Jahrhunderts" Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, kanonistische Abteilung 58 (1972), 350-369;
On the Admont school of writing and illumination: B. Giessauf
Der Codex 58 in der Stiftsbibliothek Admont und die Handschriftenillustration
unter Abt Gottfried I. (1138-1165) (typed Dipl.-Arb. Graz 1990); G.
Gonsa Einige päläographische Beiträge zur Erforschung
der Admonter Schreibschule des 12. Jahrhunderts (typed Dipl.-Arb. Wien
1989); A. Scheichl Studien zu Handschriften des 12. Jahrhunderts aus
der Stiftsbibliothek Admont (typed Staatsprüfungsarbeit am Institut
für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung, Wien 1989);
Quires are signed down to fol. 156v at the end of each gathering, grouped into three sections (fols. 1v-57v, 58r-111v, 112r-156v), with signature numbers starting over at fols. 65v and 119v: I-IV8, V15, VI7+ii; VII-XI8, XII-XIII6; XIV-XV8, XVI7, XVII8, XVIII14--? (I have examined Admont cod. 759 only in a microfilm copy.)
For paleographic comparisons, see: ELISABETH KLEMM Die romanischen Handschriften der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek Katalog der illuminierten Handschriften der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek in München 3 (Wiesbaden 1980) and F. UNTERKIRCHER Die datierten Handschriften der österreichischen Nationalbibliothek bis zum Jahre 1400 (Vienna 1969); Beschreibendes Verzeichnis der illuminierten Handschriften in österreich nos. 1-4,7 (Leipzig 1905-17)
Eight didactic verses on fols. 3r and 3v.
Other meters discussed include heroic, leonine, caudati, paractiric, tripodantic, reciprocal, retrograde etc., with many didactic examples.
Latin marginal glosses accompany some metrical examples. Final gloss: Tuscus instabo, qui habet oculos non recte prospicientes. cf. WALTHER Initia Carmina no. 15012: Que non noscuntur, si non exempla secuntur (De quantitate litterarum): Historisches Vierteljahrschrift 30, 29; Notices et extraits des mss. de la Bibl. Nat. et autres bibl. Paris 1 ff, 1787 ff. -- Leiden BPL 191. E. (s. XIII) fols. 110v-112.
Bottom three lines on fols. 46v and 47r are written by a different (albeit contemporary) hand, similar to the 'Evanescunt simul's second hand (below no. 44).
Although not preceded by a rubric or a blank line, no. 4d begins with a large red majuscule 'E'. Nos. 4a-??? in J. OEBERG ed. Serlo of Wilton: Poemes latins Studia Latina Stockholmensia 14 (Stockholm 1965). Admont cod. 759 not listed in that edition. --- More versus differentiales below, no. 6a-b. WORSTBROCK, Repertorium 121, notes: "Ein beträchtlicher Teil der Versus differentiales kehrt im Grecismus des Eberhard von Bethune wieder." Cf. J. WROBEL ed. Eberhardi Bethuniensis Graecismus Corpus Grammaticorum medii aevi 1 (Breslau-Vratislavia 1887, repr. Hildesheim 1987) and see COLETTE JEUDY "Evrard de Bethune" in Dictionnaire des lettres francaises: Le Moyen Age edd. GENEVIEVE HASENOHR and MICHEL ZINK (Turin 1992) 435.
For another enigma with similar beginning, see WALTHERInitia Carminum no. 5650.
WALTHER Initia Carminum no. 60 (Erlangen UB I. 76/1 fol. 235 - s. XII). See ELIAS STEINMEYER and E. SIEVERS Die althochdeutschen Glossen 3.63 note 23; PAUL LEHMANN Mitteilungen aus HSS 3.24; Anzeiger 19.121.
No. 6b is preceded by a line left blank for a rubric and begins with a large majuscule 'S'; at its completion it is followed by three blank lines.
7a-c (= Carmina Burana 133; see WALTHERInitia Carmina nos. 5437, 8153; 11930; 2588, 5151, 9267) ed. by WEIGAND in Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum 9 (1850) 390. According to WICHNERKatalog (Admont 1888) 78, 84, 203, 223, 279 and 379, these verses are also found in two other twelfth-century manuscripts: Admont cod. 106 (fols. 146v-147v, following Rupert of Deutz), cod. 476 (fols. 124r-125r, following Gregorius Magnus Moralia in Iob). Cod. 476 is listed in Peter of Arbon's 1370/76 catalogue. These verses are also found in two fourteenth-century Admont manuscripts following Engelbert of Admont's De naturis animalium: cod. 119 (fol. 47v) and cod. 547 (fol. 121). Cod. 547 is listed in Peter of Arbon's 1370/76 catalogue (letter of Engelbert of Admont to Ulrich of Vienna). In all these manuscripts (including cod. 759) the names of the birds, animals and trees have interlinear German glosses (see ELIAS STEINMEYER and E. SIEVERSDie althochdeutschen Glossen 3.20, 32ff., 466). -- Other manuscripts are given for 7a-c by LYNN THORNDIKE and PEARL KIBREA Catalogue of Incipits of Mediaeval Scientific Writings in Latin (Cambridge Mass. 1963) on pages 626 (Munich, Bay. Staatsbibl. clm. 614 fol. 31, clm. 4146 fol. 20, clm. 4350 fol. 3, clm. 12665 f. 142, and Vienne 75 H), 916 (Prague, Lobk. 489 fols. 56v-57r) and 481 (Vienna, ÖNB 3213 fols. 116r-117r). WALTHER cites numerous manuscripts, among them the 12th c. Salzburg, S. Peter a. V. 27 fol. 100r and Munich, BSB, clm. 4196 fol. 19v, 4583 fol. 78v, 19488 pp. 118, 121. See WERNER WEGSTEIN "Zur Überlieferung der 'Versus de volucribus, bestiis, arboribus'", in: Studia Linguistica et Philologica. Festschrift für Klaus Matzel zum sechzigsten Geburtstag überreicht von Schülern, Freunden und Kollegen. edd. HANS-WERNER EROMS, BERNHARD GAJEK, HERBERT KOLB Germanische Bibliothek». N.F., 3.Reihe: Untersuchungen (Heidelberg 1984) 285-294.
Other manuscripts are given for 8a and 8c by LYNN THORNDIKE and PEARL KIBRE A Catalogue of Incipits of Mediaeval Scientific Writings in Latin (Cambridge Mass. 1963) on pages 1614 (Munich, Bay. Staatsbibl. clm. 17212 fol. 51, clm. 18580 fol. 86v, Dresden A 167a fol 70v and Vienna, ÖNB 848 fol. 19v) and 1563 (Vienna, ÖNB 546 fol. 51; Munich, Bay. Staatsbibl. clm. 17212 fol. 51 and Wolfenbüttel, Landesbibl. 1014 fol. 102).
This poem concerns monastic food more than it does learning.
The prose texts nos. 10-13 (De distinctionibus, Aurea Gemma <Gallica>, 'Presumptionis est' and De figuris may be of similar origin, comprising together the second and third sets of signed quires. See P.R. ROBINSON "The 'Booklet': A self-contained unit in composite manuscripts" in A. GRUYS and J.P. GUMBERT Codicologica 3. Essais typologiques (Leiden 1980) 46-69.
Section I (fols. 59r-72v) is the first French ars dictandi (Meaux, 1148, revised ca. 1152-4) ). Date and origin of Admont cod. 759 circumscribed by name of bishop Henry of Gurk (1167-1174) found in a model charter at Aurea Gemma <Gallica>3b.80 (fol. 90v), which agrees with the paleographic aspect of this manuscript. Red paragraph marks followed by capitals slashed with red, sometimes the reminder notes for the rubricator to execute these are still visible in the margin, outside the prick marks: fols. 67v (1.52), 75v (2.21), 76v (2.28), 78v (2.43, 45), 79r (3a.1), 80r (3a.10), 80v (3a.15), 81r (3a.19, 20).
A collection of 80 model letters. Most letters begin with a a proverb as preamble; 52 also have rubrics. Place names from France (Paris, Chartres, Tours, Poitou, Aquitaine) and Spain (Lerida, Leon). 3 letters (nos. 15, 25, 80) pertain to the church of St. Martin of Tours. Letter no. 61 may contain a quotation from Walter of Chatillon Carm. 17.1.1-2 (STRECKER ed. 148 = Carmina Burana 86.1-2), see F. RICOOn Source, Meaning and Form in Walter of Chatillon's 'Versa est in luctum' (Barcelona 1977).
Identifiable persons include Ermengarde, vicountess of Narbonne (1143-1192), who is a co-signator to the fictive peace treaty of letter no. 37 and Raoul de Faye, count of Saintonge, seneschal of Aquitaine and uncle of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Letter no. 37 bears the date of 1168, which might indicate the date of origin of this letter collection, or the date of its copying in this manuscript. However the substance of this peace-treaty between king Louis VII of France and king Henry II of England would better pertain to the period 1158-59. Hence 'Presumptionis est' was probably compiled in 1158-59, contemporaneously with the final French redaction of the Aurea Gemma <Gallica>. The date 1168 in letter no. 37 may be an updating made by the Admont scribe, or a simple misreading. In terms of paleography, 1168 differs hardly at all from 1158 and only slightly from 1159 (.CMLXVIII. as opposed to .CMXVIII.) and medieval scribes often made slips in rendering Roman numerals.
No paragraph marks or slashes, large red capitals for the beginning of each letter (except nos. 4 and 20); notes for the rubricator to execute these capitals, marked outside the prickmarks: fols 99v (letter no. 27), 101v (letter no. 35), or inside the prickmarks: fols. 76v (nos. 16-17), 92v (letter no. 3), 93v (letter no. 7).
The connection between 'Presumptionis est' and the Aurea Gemma <Gallica> is underscored by the letter collection's lack of rubric or even a line left free for a rubric: the capital 'P' of its incipit 'Presumptionis' is no larger than that of 'Profundo' in Aurea Gemma <Gallica> 3b.83.
This grammatical treatise is articulated by red paragraph marks followed by capitals slashed in red, sometimes the reminder notes for the rubricator to execute these are still visible in the margin, outside the prick marks: fols. 128v (Preterea notandum est quod ubicumque est elipsis...), 158v (Yronia etiam...), 161v (Circa habundantiam...), 162v (Quid sit barbarismus breviter dicendum est...).
cf. the psuedonymous Epistola Alexandri ad Aristotelem de mirabilis Indie
Marbod of Rennes Lapidarius ed. J.M. RIDDLE in Beihefte zur Sudhoffs Archiv 20 (1977) with English translation by C.W. KING. Admont cod. 759 not listed in that edition, nor is Admont cod. 3, fol. 319ff. A new edition is being prepared for Les Belles Lettres by M.-E. HERRERA, with a Spanish translation.
109 short definitions of nouns (28), verbs (80) and an adverb (§103) pertainins to ethics, politics (§101-§103) and law (§17, §73, §80). The last five definitions (§105-§109) are heterogenous: nardis spicati and nardis pistici (perfumes), parapsis and catinum (two types of vessels), cadaver. Two words are defined twice: arrogantia (§19, §58) and gloria (§56, §88); §104 clarifies the distinction between pupillus and orphanum.
Definitions of different types of writers: poet, historian, satirist, comedian and tragedian; accompanied by definitions of poetry, history, satire, comedy and tragedy (with a distinction between the latter two dramatic forms). An example: Comedus villanum sermonem scribens. Comedia enim villanus sermo dicitur, quia rustici post collectas fruges in autumno convenire solebant et post bona prandia fabulari ceperunt, quia fabulas describens comedus nominatur [cf. Horace Ep. 2.1.139].
Expl.: ...Arbor dat florem, flos fructuru fructus odorem.
Another manuscript is given for 19a by LYNN THORNDIKE and PEARL KIBRE A Catalogue of Incipits of Mediaeval Scientific Writings in Latin (Cambridge Mass. 1963) on page 477 (Munich, Bay. Staatsbibl. clm. 17212 fol. 51r); for 19c cf. Nota quod sunt quatuor animalia que pascuntur ex quatuor elementis... (Cambridge Univ. Libr., Add. 6865 fol. 12v).
ed. FRIEDRICH ZARNCKE "Zwei mittelalterliche Abhandlungen über den Bau rhythmischer Verse" Berichte über die Verhandlungen der königlich sächsischen Gesellschafte der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig Philol.-hist. Cl. 23 (1871) 34-96 at 41-48 and GIOVANNI MARI I trattati medievali di ritmica latina (Milan 1889) 28-32 [see also p. 2 note 4 and p. 5].
Inc.: Lingua paterna sonat, quod ei sapientia donat...
Expl.: ...Ac tibi semper eris carus, dum dives haberis.
LIBER SECUNDUS (fols. 195v-197r)
Inc.: Terre culturas suus cognoscere curas...
Expl.: ...Nam quod homo sperat, sompnus sibi sepe revelat.
LIBER TERTIUS (fols. 197r-198r)
Inc.: Quis adesse velis et carmen noscere queris...
Expl.: ...Nec noceas matrem, nequis offendere patrem.
LIBER QUARTUS (fol.s 198r-200r)
Inc.: Vitam securam qui vis deducere puram...
Expl.: ...Mens paupertiva coniunxit carmina bina.
WALTHER Initia Carmina no. 9194, 10340. Titled Novus Cato in JAKOB WICHNER's Katalog der Handschriften in Stift Admont 279; cf. ALBIN CZERNY Die Handschriften der Stiftsbibliothek St. Florian (Linz 1871/ Univ. Microfilms, Ann Arbor Mich. 1983) no. 649.
Inc.: Quando misellus egoque merore carent...
Expl.: ...Atris et iactis ius ruit ymbre satis.
DE ETATE (fols. 200v-201r)
Inc.: Quando misellus egoque merore carent...
Expl.: ...Comportare dapes sollicatantur apes.
DE AUTUMPNO (fol. 201r)
Inc.: Quando misellus que merore carent...
Expl.: ...Tempora, que veniunt, omnia prospiciunt.
DE HIEME (fol. 201r-v)
Inc.: Quando misellus egoque merore carent...
Expl.: ...Res vice nulla vacat, nil manet, omne labat.
DE QUATUOR TEMPORIBUS (fol. 201v)
Inc.: Quando misellus egoque merore carent...
Expl.: ...Menbra quamque senis frigida vis hiemis.
DE ETERNITATE (fol. 201v-202r)
Inc.: Quando misellus egoque merore carent...
Expl.: ...Filius et flamen quis decor unus amen.
Expl.: ...Querere res talis quomodo nequit esse localis.
ed. FRANZ JOSEF WORSTBROCK "Die Ars versificandi et carminum des Konrad Celtis" in BERND MOELLER, HANS PATZE, and KARL STACKMANN edds. Studien zum Bildungswesen des späten Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit Abhandlungen der Adademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen Philol.-hist. Kl., 3 ser. 137 (Göttingen 1983) 462-498 at 491-2; WALTHERInitia Carmina no. 19804 (Vienna 281 fol. 138 - s. XII).
Marbod of Rennes De ornamentis verborum ed. PL 171.1687-92 (WALTHER Initia Carminum no. 20244); cf. R. LEOTTA "Il 'De ornamentis verborum' de Marbodo di Rennes" Studi Medievali3 29 (1988) 103-127, where Admont cod. 759 is not listed.
Short definitions of 34 words (e.g.: Editores dicebantur, qui ex suis et propriis sumptibus ludos administrabant). Words defined: bace, bacce, mapalia, reculpores, thalamus, triumphus, tropheus, victoria, cicatrix, effrenis, fastus, prostibulum, flex, contus, cyrre, carbasus, valera, titulus, letum, novales, versutus, coree, scobs, litus, electrum, ferrugo, sirma, tragalia, scandalum, crastores, cerauni, editores, emblemata, fastidia. Five lines left blank at the end of no. 43, then a strip of parchment has been trimmed away, removing the lower border of fol. 218.
Collection of preambles (16) to charters, taken in order from the 20 model charters of the charter doctrine associated with Bernard de Meung's Flores dictaminum (first recension, ca. 1185), excluding nos. 1, 14, 17-18. Rubrics executed by the same twelfth-century hand which executed the rest of this manuscript, as is the text hand of the first four charter preambles. After the final rubric (DE DIVISIONE PATRIMONII, to the fifth charter), the hand changes to one more similar to the bottom three lines on fols. 46v and 47r (above, no. 4c)--perhaps still a 12th century hand.
This Admont preamble collection offers superior readings in an manuscript witness earlier than any of the other surviving MSS of Bernard de Meung's model charters (including Agen 4, the base MS of MEISENZAHL and WORSTBROCK). The scholarship on Bernard de Meung has not yet noticed the significance of this manuscript witness. It suggests that the core of the collection of model charters associated with his name might predate the rest of that collection (best represented by the Agen 4 manuscript) by at least 10 years. If true, Bernard de Meung's contribution to medieval diplomatic is correspondingly reduced, since 'his' model charter collection has been previously recognized as the only original part of his charter doctrine--the theoretical part having been taken from master Bernardus' De doctrina privilegiorum via Rudolf of Tours. -- On the other MSS of Bernard de Meung, cf. WORSTBROCKRepertorium no. 9.
Final fragment of a liturgical commentary, perhaps related to Gerhoh of Reichersberg;s Commentarius aureus in Psalmos et cantica feriali.
If your interest is in this sort of MSS, then you certainly will want to look at Leopold Grill, "Mystik und hoefische Dichtung" in _Spiritualitaet Heute und Gestern_, Internationaler Kongress vom 4. bis 7. August 1982, vol.1 (= Analecta Cartusiana, 35.1) (Salzburg: Institut fuer Anglistik und Amerikanistik, 1982), 115-162. Grill has written a lot more on this topic. Heinrich of Kaernten was bishop of Troyes and the Spanheim dukes of Carinthia were intermarried with the Traungau Margraves of Styria, who also were intermarried with the Babenberger. This all was involved in the founding of the Cistercian house at Rein and Grill has an elaborate thesis regarding connections via Otto of Freising and Heinrich of Kaernten, Bp. of Troyes to Chretien of Troyes and the Grail literature; he thinks the specifically Styrian settings of Parzifal (as I recall) owe something to this connection. The Traugau dynasty also had marriage connections to the Hohenstaufen and that is probably how the first Carthusians came to Styria and Carniola. The Traungau family inherited from the Spanheimer and gained advocacy rights over Viktring and St. Paul in Lavanttal after the 2nd Crusade. Grill has done a lot of work on courtly literature and Cistercian spirituality. So your ars dictandi may fit into that web somehow.
I could send you a copy of the papers I read on Traungau patronage of Styrian houses with some information on the Grill thesis in the footnotes, though I haven't really worked up the courtly literature connection thoroughly. Send me a mailing address if you are interested. I'd be eager to see the results of your work and how (if) it dovetails with Grill. Grill was/is a Cistercian of Rein. It's even possible Viktring MSS ended up at Rein, which still has a library. Also, you'll want to check out the Slovenian national library at Llubljana, which I assume you already have done. I'm sure you've investigated Graz holdings. I know some Graz Carthusian MSS disappeared for a while after the war and ended up in Yugoslavia; some are now being acknowledged as present in Ljubljana. I think there's both a national archive and national library in Ljubljana. One person who could be very helpful to you is Wilhelm Baum at Klagenfurt. He is a manuscript hound who knows Tirolean, Austrian and Slovenian holdings well and has published on Nicholas Cusanus in Tirol and on Friedrich III, I think. His address is: Univ.-Doz. Dr. Wilhelm Baum, A 9020 Klagenfurt, Leitenweg 40
I've found the librarian at Graz very helpful in the past but I don't know who is in charge now. An elderly woman, Dr. Maria Mairold, has a wealth of knowledge about manuscripts in the Styrian-Carinthian region, but she may not be in good health anymore. You could try by writing to her in care of the Graz Universitaets-Bibliothek.
Let me know if I can be of more help.
PFERSCHY, G. ed. Das Werden der Stiermark: Festschrift
zur 800. Wiederkehr der Erhebung zu Herzogtum Veroeffentlichungen des
steiermarkischen Landesarchivs, 10 (Graz, Vienna, Cologne, 1980)
"Dennis Martin 8 Jan 1997 letter: "The articles will have only brief mentions of the founding of Viktring, but the footnotes may conceal some unusual materials on Viktring's library."