De doctrina privilegiorum 1 
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[1.] INCIPIT DOCTRINA PRIVILEGIORVM.1

[1.1] Privilegium est apostolica vel imperialis sanctio, cuius timore firmata iura intemerata seruantur. Privilegium autem dicitur 'privata lex,'2 id est specialis; cuius quidem fiducia quisque quadam lege sua seque defendit. Vel ut Clemens3 papa testatur: "Privilegium a privatione legum nomen accepit,"4 quod videlicet iure factum nulla lex, nullum edictum, potest subvertere.

PRIVILEGIORUM] MIRABILIS add. Br      firmata] et add. Brpc      lex privata tr. Br      quisque] quasi add. Br Ba Spence      sua ante seque legi: sua ante quisque tr. BaBrP Spence      seque] se Br Spence      privatione] privat prem. Pac

[1.2] Privilegium vero proprie dicitur, quod ab apostolico vel ab imperatore statuitur. Que uero archiepiscopis vel episcopis vel a ducibus vel a marchionibus fiunt, non privilegia quidem sed potius decreta vel forte precepta merito appellantur.

vero om. Br      ab2 om. Br      archiepiscopis] ab prem. Br

[1.3] Constitutio autem apostolici privilegii hec est. Inprimis, in prima linea longis et excelsis litteris hoc contineri debet: Eugenius5 episcopus servus servorum Dei, venerabili fratri Parisiensi episcopo vel dilecto filio Cluniacensi abbati vel dilectis filiis canonicis vel monachis quibuslibet vel cuilibet loco vel ecclesie cuicumque. Id facere constituitur, salutatione videlicet pretermissa et in loco eius 'in perpetuum' vel etiam quandoque supposita hac scilicet 'salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.'

hec] hoc Br      Inprimis] Inprimi Ba      prima] priori Br      Parisiensi episcopo] Coloniensi archiepiscopo Br      Cluniacensi] Cliniacci Ba      canonicis] canocis Ba      ecclesie] utpote Maguntine ecclesie canonicis add. Br      et om. Br      quandoque] quando Br

[1.4] Deinde consequenter quoddam exordium ab effectu rerum6 supponitur, quo videlicet dicitur, quod debitum sit ipsum iustas preces audire ac iustis petitionibus benigne favere, hoc modo: Ideo nos Dominus in huius sublimitatis specula preponere voluit,7 ut universorum saluti et utilitati diligenter invigilare curemus. Quia ergo, fratres in Christo karissimi et cetera, vel sic: Pastoralis officii dignitate non modicum cogimur,8 ut omnium utilitatibus provideamus et iustis precibus diligenter animum inclinemus, vel sic: Petitionibus iniustis annuere omnis iustitia prohibet,9 sed iustis precatibus favere omnis ratio persuadet.

exordium] exemplum Br      audire Ba: attendere Br om. P      benigne om. Br      nos] vos Ba Spence      nos tr. Br ante preponere      huius] hec Br      sublimitatis specula tr. Br      ut] et prem. Br      ergo om. Br      sed] et Br

[1.5] His ergo vel his similibus exordiis taliter ordinatis, sub persona domini pape10 procedat tota locutio et omnia, quecumque confirmaverit vel privilegii sui protectione munierit, exprimat nominatim. Sive quidem aliquid non habitum concedat sive habita sola confirmet sive quoquo habita et in posterum iure et legaliter adquirenda corroboret, nominatim in privilegii pagina denotentur. Nam alia confirmari in priuilegio non debent, nisi que iure et legaliter vel possidentur vel in antea sunt adquirenda.

sub] su Br      tota] bona Ba Spence      quecumque interlineas Ba      confirmaverit] firmaverit Br      in privilegio confirmari tr. Br      et] ac Br      in antea] anima Br materia Ba Spence

[1.6] Tertio11 loco terrible anathema constituat, ut: Quicumque, videlicet archiepiscopus, episcopus, dux, marchio, comes, vicecomes, castaldio vel aliqua|[19v] ecclesiastica secularisve persona, illud privilegium infringere vel ei contraire temptaverit et secundo tertiove commonitus, nisi congrua ratione satisfecerit, sit anathema Maranatha12 id est a Deo separatus in secundo eius adventu, ut cum Iuda et Nerone perpetuam habeat portionem et a sacratissimo corpore Domini nostri Ihesu Christi alienus fiat et in extremi examinis die diuine ultioni subiaceat, vel aliis terribilibus verbis utatur, que scriptori collibuerint.

videlicet] vel Br      archiepiscopus--persona] archiepiscopus aut aliqua ecclesiastica persona vel secularis Br      contraire] contra Ba contradicere Br Spence      commonitus] fuerit add. Br      Maranatha om. Br      et Nerone om. Br      corpore] et sanguine add. Br Spence      examinis] examiniis Ba      aliis] forte add. Br      collibuerint] collibuerit Br

[1.7] In extremo vero privilegii benedictio summa ponatur, similiter iuxta scriptoris arbitrium: Omnibus huius privilegii iura servantibus sit pax Domini nostri Ihesu Christi quatenus et hic bone operationis fructum recipiant et in sanctorum consortio cum Domino requiescant, vel forte aliis verbis ut scriptori placuerit.

ponatur] supponatur Br      recipiant] percipiant Br

[1.8] Postea, in reliquo pagine, in sinistra parte scilicet, scribatur figura quedam, que in subsequenti exemplo privilegii est, qua continetur 'Bene valete.'

que] quam Br      subsequenti] subsequentis Br      privilegii exemplo tr. Br      est] habetur Br      qua] quo Br      continetur] continentur Ba Spence

[1.9] In dextra13 vero parte fiat quedam rota dupplex et in medio intrinsecus crux Christi. In circulo dupplicis rote scribatur: Dextera Domini fecit virtutem, dextera Domini exaltavit me14 vel hoc: Misericordia Domini plena est terra,15 vel hoc: Venite filii, Audite me,16 vel aliquid tale de psalmis, quod dictator ad domini pape personam specialiter convenire viderit. Super brachia crucis scribi debent nomina apostolorum 'sanctus Petrus, sanctus Paulus' et subter brachia crucis scribi debet nomen domini pape, sic: 'Eugenius papa tertius,' vel quodcumque nomen pape fuerit.

fiat om. Br      dupplicis] duplici Br      exaltavit me] ex Br      vel hoc--aliquid] vel aliquod tali verbum Br      Audite me] timorem Domini docebo vos Br Ba Spence ex Psal. 33.12      specialiter] pertinere et Br      crucis--Paulus om. Br      debent nomina--scribi om. Ba per homioiteleuton et om. Spence      nomen pape] papa Ba

[1.10] In extremo vero margine|[20r] pagine iuxta sigillum scribi debet cancellarii nomen in hunc modum: Data Parisius per manum Guidonis,17 sancte Romane ecclesie diaconi cardinalis et cancellarii, XI. Kalendas Maii, 18 indictione tali et tali, incarnationis Dominice anno .Mo.Co. tali et tali, pontificatus domini Eugenii tali et tali.

.XI.] .VI. Br      indictione] inditione Br      domini om. Br


1 Anonymous doctrine of privileges written in 1147 (i.e. during the residence of pope Eugene III and the papal curia in France), lightly reworked ca. 1155-58 (see below, 2.7-8, 4.6) and thereafter appended to the French version of master Bernardus' Summa dictaminum (recension B, completed ca. 1160).

2 Cicero's etymology (De legibus 1.3) first takes this form in Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae 5.18, which received wide circulation by its inclusion in Gratian's Decretum D.3 c.3.

3 The following does not appear in the first Epistle of S. Clement or in the pseudo-Clementine literature.

4 For the origin of this etymology in early decretist commentaries, see RICHARD SPENCE "A twelfth-century treatise on the writing of privileges" Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law 12 (1982) 51-63 at 53.

5 Eugene III, pope (1145-1153).

6 See master Bernardus' Rationes dictandi (ROCKINGER ed.) 18 for the five modi exordiendi: a persona mittentis, a persona recipientis, ab utraque simul, a rerum effectu, a negotio de quo agitur. Three modes (or topics of invention) for constructing the preambles to privileges are detailed in Boncompagno's Oliva 7.19-8a.6 (papal privileges) and 15.3 (privileges granted by archbishops and bishops); these topics of invention are repeated for the preambles to confirmations 50.4. The Aurea Gemma <Gallica>, which is the first ars dictandi to comprehensively treat the topics of invention, does not specifically deal with preambles.

7 A privilege with a similar incipit was issued by the papal chancery in 16 July 1147 (JL 9096, PL 180.1252) during ten weeks of residence at Auxerre, but shortly after departing Meaux, where pope Eugene III had stayed for nearly three weeks..

8 Cf. JL 1191 (Reg. Gregorii I. 2.37), 5377, 7116 (PL 163.1305), 7298 (PL 166.1277).

9 Cf. JL 4384, 4398, 4458 (PL 143.1352), 4992 (PL 148.729), 5395 (PL 151.299), 8685.

10 See also below, De doctrina privilegiorum 3.3.

11 Not included in this enumeration is the body of a privilege (narratio, promulgatio, dispositio--in medieval sources often merely referred to as the narratio), whose final, dispositive, part is described and discussed above, De doctrina privilegiorum 1.5, but not exemplified. Failure to count the privilege's body here is not unusual; as the most variable part of a charter, it has received short shrift from both modern diplomatic and medieval charter doctrines.

12 I Cor. 16.22

13 Although SPENCE notes in his edition: "The author made a mistake here. In his following example [ie. following De doctrina privilegiorum 2.8, below] and in actual documents, the rota is on the left and the Bene valete is on the right," the author merely described right and left proper to the object itself (ie.: the page of a papal charter), rather than from the perspective of someone viewing or reading that object. Stage directions--'proper right' and 'proper left' in the terminology used by art historians--are always correct protocol for describing pictorial sources with hierarchical intent, because right and left may have absolute valences. For example: scenes of the Last Judgment invariably place the elect to Christ's right and the damned to His left. The rota, with its pictures of SS. Peter and Paul and papal devise, properly occupies stage right--the more worthy side--whereas the less important bene valete is relegated to stage left. To name right and left according to the vantage point of a viewer, as SPENCE has done, confounds dextra with sinistra and subverts a finely wrought hierarchical structure. --- Though rota and bene valete are described in the eleventh-century Alberic of Montecassino's Corpus 2.2.4-7, they are not specifically located on the page. But De doctrina privilegiorum's use of proper right and proper left are retained in the charter doctrines based on it: Rudolf of Orleans Summa dictaminis (ROCKINGER ed. 111-114), Bernard of Meung's De privilegiis (WIGHT ed.) 1.7-8 and "De confectione privilegiorum et instrumentorum", the final section of Transmundus' Introductiones in arte dictandi (DALZELL ed.) 37.13. --- For the general problem of descriptive perspective of right and left, see KURT REINDEL Die Briefe des Petrus Damiani MGH Briefe der deutschen Kaiserzeit (Munich 1983-1993) 3.90-99 (ep. 159) at 91-2, notes 5-8 with literature cited there and Boncompagno's Oliva 9.23. The semiology of charters deserves more study, a beginning will be made by the collection of articles: PETERCK ed. Graphische Symbole in mittelalterlichen Urkunden Historische Hilftswissenschaften 3 (Sigmaringen: Thorbecke, forthcoming).

14 Psal. 117.16. Cf. the devises of Alexander II, pope (1061-1073).

15 Psal. 32.5: the devise of Leo IX, pope (1048-1054), whose chancery introduced the rota.

16 Psal. 33.12.

17 Guido, cardinal deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (1132-1149) and chancellor of the Roman church (10/17.12.1146-11.1149). For his legation to Germany in 1147 to discuss king Conrad III's plans for the second crusade, see J. BACHMANNLegaten in Deutschland und Skandinavien (1125-1159) Historische Studien 115 (Berlin 1913) 79f. This legation apparently left no documentary record: it is not discussed in STEFAN WEISS Die Urkunden der paepstlichen Legaten von Leo IX. bis Coelestin III. (1049-1198) (Cologne 1995).For Guido's friendships with Anselm of Havelberg: Codex Wibaldi nos. 121-122; with Bernard of Clairvaux: PL. 182 nos. 234, 367, 368; with Wibald of Stavelot: Codex Wibaldi nos. 47, 55, 62, 63, 67, 113, 160, 194, 195,198, 252.

18 The same calendar date appears below, De doctrina privilegiorum 2.8. SPENCE (ed. 54) mistakenly counts this date as May 20, 1150.

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© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998

Scrineum © Universitŕ di Pavia 1999