Boncompagnus 1.23 
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Incipits -- Siglorum conspectus

|1.23 DE COMMENDATIONIBUS1

1.23.1 Notula, in qua distinquitur, quid significet hoc verbum "commendo" et quid sit commendatio, aperte docetur.

[1] Scire debet omnis orator, quod hoc verbum 'commendo' habet| duplicem significationem.| Nam quando construitur cum accusativo, significat 'laudem', ut 'commendo te', idest 'laudo te'. Quando autem construitur cum accusativo subsequente dativo, significat subicibilitatem vel subiectionem, ut 'commendo me vobis' idest 'subicio me protectione vestri' aut 'tutele.' Commendatio est quedam presentatio subiectiva minoris ad maiorem. Et commendatio est quedam representatio <???>, quia 're' notat reiterationem. Pro certo quicumque se recommendat prius commendatus erat.
    | [22r] A    [12ra] P       habet |  [12rb] P             significationem  | [22v] A           ut] et Berlin       subicibilitatem] sibicilitatem P       commendo] quando
1 For bibliography on letters of commendation: HANNAH COTTON Documentary letters of recommendation in Latin from the Roman Empire (Konigstein im Taunus.: Hain, 1981) Beitrage zur klassischen Philologie ; Heft 132.

1.23.2 Littere, quas direxi Aquilegensi patriarche.1

Boncompagno sends a letter of thanks and praise to Wolfger, patriarch of Aquileia. Letter begins with a bilingual etymological interpretation of Wolfger’s name, based on a dream-vision and elaborated with tropological exegesis (§1-§3). Boncompagno hopes to see again his beloved benefactor and patron, who had gowned him in the presence of scholars (§4). Because Wolfger does not need or seek more praise, Boncompagno will silence his laudations (§5), and he has nothing more to offer Wolfger, because he has already offered his self, asking only that he might sit at the patriarch’s footstool (§6). [Date: 1204-1218] Click here for translation

[1] "Dormivi et soporatus sum2 et evigilans cepi cum admiratione in ethymologia vestri nominis proprii meditari, cum vidi agnum volvere lupum in giro et ipsius dorsum contra significationem vocis et consuetam rei naturam calcare. Wolfcherus enim Teutonice,3 Latine dicitur 'lupus volvens.'4 Sed ego, effectum considerans manifestum, dico: Agnus est lupum volvens et 'lupus' est de parte nominis tamquam res, que patitur et subicibiliter conculcatur. Agnus quidem non timebat rapacitatem lupinam, quia in astili fidei et karitatis ferebat vexillum et crucis erat signaculo premunitus."

1 Boncompagnus 5.1.7-8: letter of the chapter of Aquileia to its patriarch-elect, and response thereto. KONRAD BURDACH Walther von der Vogelweide (Leipzig 1900) 290 treats Boncompagno’s relationship with Wolfger.     2 Psal. 3.6.      3 ie. Wolf-kehre. Boncompagno shows interest in the German language in Boncompagnus 1.2.5, 1.2.9, 1.19.3, 1.23.10. He gives voice to the desire of nobles to train their sons in this language at Boncompagnus 6.6.1-2. The customs of German wills are discussed at Mirra 5.3 and of German law-courts at Boncompagnus 4.4.26. Wolfger’s expense-book shows Boncompagno in attendance at the court of a German prelate (ed. HEDWIG HEGER Das Lebenszeugnis Walthers von der Vogelweide. Die Reiserechnungen des Passauer Bischofs Wolfger von Erla, 1970); he records a visit to Germany in Palma 28: Nam ego, cum per Alamaniam irem, cuidam obviavi rustico, quem Teutoncio idiomate nimium honorabiliter salutavi, alias in eo vulgari salutationes penitus ignorans. Ille vero infremuit spiritu et evaginato ense me occidere voluit, inde vix ab eius manibus evasi. His nom de plumeBuchimenon’ may contain a German root.       4 On the gyre: Rhetorica novissima9.3, Boncompagnus 1.23.5.

[2] "Verumtamen de quadam vetusta et vitiata radice procedebat igniculus, qui summitates vellerum adurere videbatur. Agno quidem vos assimilo et mundo lupum non sine mistice intellectu figuro. Adustio siquidem fiebat ex originali peccati labe, que ad posteros miserabiliter derivata, fermentum efficitur peccatorum, quo corrumpitur massa conditionis humane. Unde nemo vivere potest absque contagiis venalium delictorum."

[3] "Lupus equidem in diversas effigies mutabatur et aliquando claudicabat, occidebat animalia et cumulabat occisa. Aliquando cursitabat et sepe videbatur flexis poplitibus dilabi et labiliter incurvari. Erat enim insatiabilis et animalia, que devorare non poterat, occidebat. Sed demum in nichilum redigi videbatur, sicut spuma gracilis, que dispergitur a procella."1

1 Sap. 5.15. Although here the etymological excursus on Wolfger’s name stretches to unusual length, interpretatio nominis is a figure regularly found in Boncompagno’s letters. It shows three typical facets of Boncompagno. 1) Wordplay with a scholastic, as well as an anthropological axis, driven by an interest in creation. 2) Dictator’s strategy (hired pen faced with the problem of giving expression to a relationship of which he takes no actual--as opposed to verbal--part): An opportunity to address personally one whom you only know their name. [For examples of such letters, see Boncompagnus 6.1.1-4]. 3) Meta-textuality (or the vocal/textual world, as opposed to the real world). For a criticism of etymologizing proper names, see Boncompagnus 1.17.2. I have not seen MARIA ELISABETH WITTMER-BUTSCH Zur Bedeutung von Schlaf und Traum im Mittelalter (Zurich 1990).

[4] "Ceterum postpositis his, que ad Sacrarum pertinent misteria Scripturarum, me ad materiam supervenientem transferre compellor, quia surgit aquilo devotionis, venit auster fidelitatis, perflat in ortulum servitoris et facit beneficiorum vestrorum aromata suis flatibus redolere.1 Sed siquis dabat michi pennas tamquam aquile,2 ut volitem inter celum et solum ad hoc, quod revidere valeam benignissimum patrem meum et benefactorem precipuum, qui me sacrati horis osculo recepit in suum, de sue benivolentie munere investivit et in presentia scolarium purpuravit, considerans merita scientie non persone. Reverentie igitur zonam succingam lumbos, ascendam pinum, abiectem libanum atque nardum3 et incendam thimiamata, ut sine fumo inanis laudis recipiat subiectionis et servitii mei tributum."

1 Cant. 4.16.        2 Psalm 54.7.         3 Cf. Isai. 41.19.

[5]"Sibilabo itaque moderatius, quia nec famam suam neglegit nec appetit vocem mallei vel securis audire.1 Unde ante ipsius presentiam numquam cimbalum tinniens2 deportabo. Profecto adulantium hora non loquuntur, sed sufflant et inflant improvidorum vesicas,3 sed quando crepant interclusi venti, vaporant."

1 III Reg. 6.7.          2 I Cor. 13.            3 Cf. Boncompagnus 1.1.13, 1.13.1, 1.14.3, 5.6.9.

[6] "In commendationibus igitur quarumlibet personarum verum aut verisimile proponatur, ne aliqua veritatis| particula mendatii nebula tenebretur. Demum| quid excellentie vestre offeram, iam ignoro, quoniam a Magis aurum, thus et mirra Domino sunt oblata.1 Verumtamen adhuc meum Salem2 habeo, cum quo salivi corda et ingenia plurimorum. Salem ergo dominationi vestre non offeram, sed meipsum. Et meipsum offerre non possum, quia semel iam vobis me obtuli. Nec licet revocare oblatum, quia per ratihabitationem in vestrum dominium pertransivi. Ad hoc ipsum humiliter deprecor et exoro, qui terram palmo concludit et cui celestia et terrestria famulantur, quatinus michi de munere gratie sue concedat, quod adhuc merear ad scabellum pedum vestrorum sedere,3 ubi mea possit anima dominabilis vestre presentie solatio refoveri."4

veritatis | [12va] P        Demum | [23r] A
1  Mirra 1.10.         2 Salem pax vel reddens. Hieronymus Liber interpretationis Hebraicorum nominum (Turnhout 1959) CCL 72.72 line 31.            3 Jacob. 2.3 etc.      4 Po. *4994: Non admittit postulationem Volcheri patriarchae Aquileiensis qua petebat, ut parcens senectuti ac debilitati suae nec non et paupertati ecclesiae Aquleiensis, quae magno debitorum onere pergravabatur, a labore veniendi ad concilium eum misericorditer absolveret; et respondens quod suo honori et publicae utilitati derogaretur, si talis et tanta persona concilio subtraheretur, mandat ut inutilem pompam potius evitans et multitudinem militum, clericorum et servientium ad dictum concilium venire procuret. GIUSEPPE BIANCHI ed. Indice dei documenti per la storia del Friuli dal 1200 al 1400. (Udine 1877) 20. no. 44.

1.23.3. Littere, quas direxi nobili viro Nicholao1 studenti Parisius.

Boncompagno replies to a letter (similar to 1.20.13) from his student Nicholas Maltraversus, who studies at Paris. Comparison of epistolary correspondence with sexual generation (§1). Grateful recognition of the respect Nicholas shows by placing Boncompagno’s name first in the letter’s salutation and addressing him as ‘master’ (§2). Elaboration of legal topoi drawn from Nicholas’ letter (§3-§4). Paris is called another Zion for its studium of theology. But Bologna deserves to be called Babylonia because priests and even monks forsake divine things there to pursue the secular law for the sake of monetary gain (§5). Boncompagno predicts this neglect will provoke prophetic reaction such as Ezekiel’s vision of the wheel (§5). Responding to a question about his own state, he replies that during a summertime sickness, he had vowed to complete a book already begun (perhaps the Rethorica novissima?), but Nicholas’ admonishment in his letter spurred fulfillment of this vow (§6). Asked about the state of the land, Boncompagno replies that although there had been hopes for peace after the emperor’s regress from Italy [March 1212], there is no peace; no right relation exists between church and secular powers, because of diverse ideas about the two swords (§7). Boncompagno reports that Nicholas’ Vicenza is consuming itself and withering away, and thus should rightly be called Perdentia, not Vincentia (§8). He knows that Nicholas, firm in his resolve to study, will return to his fatherland with increased knowledge, so that his followers will be able to enjoy and benefit from his presence (§8). [Date: 1212] Click here for translation
 

[1] "Cum ex habundantia cordis hos loquatur,2 non est ascribendum prolixitati, quod utiliter est in animo preconceptum, et maxime cum ex vestrarum litterarum significatis3 mea sit responsio gravidata. Unde peperit epistolam secundum seminum quantitatem.4 Nam omne semen terre proiectum generi proprio respondere videmus, et si plurima fuerint semina, unumquodque suum genus producit."

1 Nicolo Maltraversi, bishop of Reggio (1211-1243). For a letter which Boncompagno may have written for Nicholas as bishop of Reggio, Boncompagnus 3.15.1     2 Matt 12.34, Luc 6.45.        3 Perhaps this is Boncompagnus 1.20.13, which is a letter from a student to his first master.        4For a similar comparison between the creative process of rhetorical invention and the biological regeneration, see Boncompagnus 1.13.1. That oration also features a discussion of the plural of majesty. --- Self-referential statements are common to the Isagoge’s collection of preambles (see 3.51-55, 3.70-75).

[2] "Prevenistis me siquidem in salutationibus dulcedinis, et in capite meo coronam recordationis vestre ponentes, in ortulum meum flare austrum1 dilectionis vestre fecistis, meum nomen vestre in epistole titulo premittentes.2 Nam et per totam narrationum seriem de me pluraliter et singulariter de vobis fuistis locuti, super quibus non miror, quia dixistis in principio 'magistro suo',3 quod relativum significat rem possessam."

1Cant. 4.16. Cf. Boncompagnus 1.23.5 §1.         2 1.20.13, as all the letters of the Boncompagnus, has no salutation. However the use of the majestic plural for the adressee and the the singular for the sender would require that any salutation for this letter would place the recipients name first. For Boncompagno’s doctrine on this point, see my unpublished paper "Barbarossa’s Chancery Ordinance", where I discuss the texts in Tractatus virtutum and Notule auree. For Boncompagno on the plural of majesty, see my "Barbarossa’s Chancery Ordinance". Cf. also Decretists and Glossators on Papal-Imperial Correspondance.       3Boncompagno had been Nicholaus’ teacher.

[3] "Unde fuit licitum possessori, quod suum erat, secundum libitum pertractare. Nimirum dominus prediorum silvas in novalia, novalia in vineta, vineta in pomeria facit secundum libitum transmutari."1

1 Cf. Oliva 19.11. The transition effected in Boncompagnus 1.23.3 §1-§3 from the ars dictandi to civil law includes three stages: a) a self-referential salutation; b) an analogy between the sender’s epistolary assertion of a personal relationship with the recipient and legal possession according to Roman law; c) specific reference to Roman law. Peter of Blois made this same transition, with the same three stages, in the opening of his Ep. 26 (PL 207.91). This letter has been critically edited by LENA WALHGREN The Letter Collections of Peter of Blois: Studies in the Manuscript Tradition (Göteborg 1993) 72-80.

[4] "Sed scire desidero, audire peropto et intelligere concupisco, ubi pascat, ubi cubet, quem diliget anima mea,1 quem ulnis dilectionis amplector, ut offeram sibi devotionis tributum,2 affectionis censum et fidelitatis vectigal."

1Cant. 1.6         2The legalisms tributum, censum, vectigal continue a theme found already in this letter at §3. The theme was introduced in Boncompagnus 1.20.13.

[5] "Pascitur in altera Syon, quia de Syon exibit lex non humana, sed divina; non transitoria, sed eterna; non temporalis, sed spiritualis; non illa, que iubet solvi usuras,1 sed que fomentum est fidei, spei preambula et subsidiaria karitatis. Altera namque Syon esse Parisius comprobatur, que ratione theologie discipline Paradisus potest hodie appellari.2 Et Bononia quasi Babilonia merito dici iam valet, ubi clerici et etiam ipsi monachi3 Deum et divina pariter deserentes Trebatium4 venerantur, sententia cuius in sterquiliniis, idest in curiis secularibus meruit obtinere, ut illorum dextra muneribus repleatur. Pullularunt etiam Decretales5 plusquam scimfes et locuste, quibus post leges mundanas tota clericorum intentio adhibetur. Nec est, qui super legem divinam velit aliquatenus meditari, nec etiam usque ad unum. Unde renovatur treni Yeremie, aperitur visio Danielis,6 lamentatur cuneus prophetarum, stupet apostolorum caterva et sanctorum patrum agmina conqueruntur, dum vident, quod animalia| vadunt et non redeunt, sed volvuntur miserabiliter in rota, quam Yezechiel vidit super terram."7

animalia | [12vb] P
1 This captatio benevolentie is pointedly applied to a university audience--although Nicholaus is here his proximal audience. --- Three things are here alluded to: a) The civil law provided a rational basis for the payment of interest on loans. b) Scholastic analysis of the just price found ‘loopholes’ in canonistic probition of usury. c) As the volumes of the Chartularium studii Bononiensis exhaustively demonstrate, loans of money with interest are perhaps the most common type of legal transactions undertaken at the Bolognese studium., on which see Boncompagnus 3.20.43. --- Usury is mentioned in Boncompagnus 1.8.2, 1.20.3, 1.20.7, 1.20.8, 2.3.7, 3.13.12, 3.16.14, 3.20.10, 6.9.4, 6.9.8-10. Title 6.9 of that work is devoted to loans. In Oliva 10.6, Boncompagno condemns Bolognese usurers, suggesting that notaries often function as money lenders. The same accusation is made of professors in the Boncompagnus 3.20.43. -- See also  LAURENCE ELDREDGE "Walter of Chatillon and the Decretum of Gratian: An Analysis of 'Propter Zion non tacebo'" Studies in Medieval Culture 3 (1970) 59-69.     2 In a similar bit of old testament typology, Boncompagnus 5.20.1, Boncompagno declares Albert, patriarch of Jerusalem, to be alter Elyseus. For a contemporay comparison of the studia in Italy to that of Paris: Alexander Neckham De naturis rerum (ed. THOMAS WRIGHT, Rerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores 34, 1863) 308-11, 414.      3 On the prohibition of religious persons studying the civil law, see STEPHAN KUTTNER "Papst Honorius III. und das Studium des Zivilrechts" in Festschrift M. Wolf (Tübingen 1952) 79-101. See also PETER JOHANEK "Klosterstudien im 12. Jahrhunder" Schulen und Studium 35-68; R. KOHN "Monastisches Bildungsideal und weltgeistliches Wissenschaftsdenken. Zur Vorgeschichte des Mendikantenstreites an der Universität Paris" in Die Auseinandersetzungen an der Pariser Universität im XIII. Jahrhundert Miscellanea Mediaevalia 10 (Berlin 1976) 1-37.       4 Cf. Boncompagnus 5.1.26: sed receperunt librum de manu trebatii, sententia cuius in sterquilinio meruit obtinere. Italian trebbiare = to thresh. This wordplay involves the fact that certain chapters of the basic textbook of canon law, Gratian’s Decretum, were known as palea. For a criticism of those studying law for the sake of avarice, see Boncompagnus 1.5.7. For a recent summary of research on this topos, see ROLF KOHN "Schulbildung und Trivium im lateinische Hochmittelalter und ihr möglicher praktischer Nutzen" in JOHANNES FRIED ed. Schulen und Studium im Sozialen Wandel des Hohen und Späten Mittelalters (Sigmaringen 1986) 208-284.       5 For the most recent attempt to chart the explosive growth of papal decretals in the late twelfth century, KATRIN BAAKEN and ULRICH SCHMIDT "Chronologische und Diplomatische Aspekte bei Deperdita der Papstregesten 1181-1198" in Diplomatische und Chronologische Studien aus der Arbeit an den Regesta Imperii ed. PAUL-JOACHIM HEINIG (Cologne-Vienna 1991) 83-96 at 83-85. Boncompagno possibly also alludes here to the confusing variety of different decretal collections available until the publication of the Decretales Gregorii IX in 1234.       6 Dan. 7. 1-18.       7 Ezec. 1.4-28.

[6] "Ex eo vero quod statum vestrum esse michi prosperum intimastis, inenarrabili sum iocunditate repletus. Unde status meus tamquam lilium reflorescit,| qui status1 in estivo tempore dici non poterat. Immo casus, quoniam in validam egritudinem fui lapsus, in qua dum corpus esset relictum ut forma, et foret in eo solus spiritus ut natura, et vergere ad interitum per medicorum iudicium videretur, votum emisi, quod librum,2 ut creditur seculis, profectivum ducerem ad effectum. Sed admonitio vestra successit, que tamquam calcar votum sollicitat et voventem. Unde operi superintendere non desisto."

reflorescit |  [23v] A
1 See Boncompagnus 1.23.14 (the notula ‘De statu’).        2 According to its prologue, bishop Nicholaus of Reggio urged Boncompagno to complete a project announced in Boncompagnus prol. 2.3(first redaction, 1215), the Rhetorica novissima, which he did in 1235 (cf. epilogue). But here we see Nicholaus promoting a writing project while still a student at Paris. This chronological discrepancy might be resolved in three ways: 1) Perhaps Boncompagno here speaks in this letter of another book, such as the Liber X tabularum, which was begun at Reggio and finished at Bologna (cf. Liber X tabularum, prol. 2); or 2) Nicholaus’ interest in the project was of long duration, predating his election to the episcopal see of Reggio. A final possibility is 3) both letters were written at the time of Nicholaus’ election.

[7] "De statu nempe terre scire non possum, quia non debet dici status, qui cottidie variatur et velut mare fluctuat et discurrit. In regressu quidem Cesaris pacem sperabamus habere et dictum est: "Pax pax" et non venit.1 Immo est error peior priore,2 quoniam duo gladii, que fuerunt in mensa Domini appositi et significare duplicem potestatem ecclesie videbantur, diversimode se habent. Nec possunt esse concordes, quia per unum iubetur: 'Que sunt Dei, Deo reddite'; per alium respondetur: 'Que sunt Cesaris, solvere Cesari non tardetis.'3 Et ita diversa relatio tantam facit discoherentiam intellectuum, quod per aliquam glossam non solvitur scrupulus questionis."4

1 Otto IV, emperor (1198-1214, imperial coronation 1209). Pax is used as an interjection.        2 Matt 27.64. Cf. RNI 154 (KEMPF ed. 353.7).          3 Luc. 22.38.           4 Glosses and glossing are usually treated negatively by Boncompagno: Cedrus 6.24, and in the ‘Invectiva contra glosatores’ (Rethorica novissima 10.1). But see Tractatus virtutum §12, Rethorica novissima3.2.22.

[8] "Preterea unum scio et vos ignorare non credo, quod Vincentia vestra in seipsa consumitur et marcescit.1 Unde non debet dici Vincentia, sed Perdentia, quia multipliciter cecedit significatio nominis ab effectu.2 Vos autem, que retro sunt obliviscentes, ad anteriora ita studendi propositum extendatis, quod cum tempus veniet oportunum, ad patriam3 revertamini cum scientie incremento, ut illi desiderabilem faciem vestram valeant cum gaudio revidere, qui presentie vestre solatio desiderabilius frui peroptant, et illi se patrem revidisse letentur, qui presidiis orphanati expectant a munificentie vestre uberibus refoveri."

1 See Boncompagnus 3.15.1, 5.22.1. Innocent III designated the bishop-elect of Reggio (Nicolas Maltraversi) administrator of the Vicenza episcopate on April 8, 1213 (Po. 4694, Registrum 16.15, PL 216.800). The pope recommends Nicholaus for this task for his personal qualities and local political connections (qui prudentia et honestate per gratiam Dei viget, et est in partibus illis potens).       2For similar wordplay with the Vicenza’s name, see Boncompagnus 5.22.1.       3 The word patria usually means ‘heaven’ in the Boncompagnus (see for example 5.22.1). Where it is used in an earthly sense, it refers to a province or a city. We can assume it does not mean ‘Italy’, here. For Boncompagno’s ideas of Italy, see ROBERT L. BENSON "Libertas in Italy (1152-1226)" in La notion de liberte au Moyen Age Islam, Byzance, Occident ed. GEORGE MAKDISI (Paris 1985); on the general idea of patria, THOMAS EICHENBERGER Patria: Studien zur Bedeutung des Wortes in Mittelalter (6. -12. Jahrhundert) (Sigmaringen 1991).

1.23.4. Littere, quas direxi eidem, postquam fuit in episcopum electus.1

Boncompagno expresses his worries to Nicholas Maltraversus, that after his election to bishop of Reggio (1213), he will lose his self in the episcopal office. Parody of the language of scholastic philosophy, in which Boncompagno predicts that this election shall not morally better Nicholas (§1). Despite this presentiment, he hopes that Nicholas’ virtues will increase after accepting this election, so that he can rule Reggio’s church through the fruit of good works (§2). [Date: ca. 1213] Click here for translation

[1] "Pallet aurum in electro,2 delitescit argentum in cupro et famam celebrem dignitatis rubigo consumit.3 Unde inest adhuc sensui meo ambiguitas de promotis. Immo non inest, quia probabiliter didici, manifeste docui et necessario probavi, quod dignitatis accidens absque subiecti corruptione vix potest adesse,4 quoniam de causa procedit causatum, et forma recipit et patitur alterationem, cum subiective partes non habeant motum ad centrum.5 Quare nisi vestra Nicholaitas in suo statu6 permanserit, vos faciet dignitas episcopalis indignos. Iam enim in presagio sum propheta, in hoc preconio per experientiam eruditus. Non minus tamen preelectum diligo Nicholaum, sed electum pavesco, timens ne serenitas illustris comitis7 viri famosi et liberalis sub episcopalis umbra fastigii patiatur eclipsim."

1 Nicholaus was elected bishop of Reggio in 1213. See Boncompagnus 1.23.3.       2Cf. Oliva 1.4. For Boncompagno’s interest in magic and alchemy, see Boncompagnus 1.18.14. He reports often that his enemies accused him of acquiring knowledge through magical means.       3 Similar passages are found in Boncompagnus 1.14.2, 1.3.3, 1.20.8, 1.20.17, 1.25.7, 5.19.4 and Oliva 1.4. Cf. Prov. 25.4 and Ezec. 24.11-12.         4For the pitfalls of office, see De amicitia 23. De amicitia 29 discusses ambitio dignitatis.        5I have found no particular model for this parody of scholastic prose. But see Oliva 1.4.          6See Boncompagnus 1.23.14. notula ‘De statu’.         7 Cf. De amicitia23.

[2] "Libanus mea floruit preter cultum, super quam Philomena voce variabili modulatur, nec est in esca labor,1 sed rostrum est infixum labori, tamen adhuc me vobis post assumptum| fastum promotionis attentius recommendo, peroptans ut contra meam opinionem cum dignitatis assensu taliter ascendat vestrarum virtutum profectus, ut in ecclesia Regina per bonarum operationum fructus in Domino regnare possitis."

assumptum | [13ra] P
1 Gen 3.17.

1.23.5. Littere, quas direxi cuidam notario1 pape.|

Boncompagno sends ‘a letter in presage of devotion and love’ to an unidentified papal notary. He will eschew flattery in this letter (§1). He contrasts this notary with others who plagiarize from the papal Registers, for which crime they should be summoned to court (§2). The knowledge and reknown of the notary in the oratorical faculty is praised. Boncompagno pledges his love and announces his desire to inaugurate a bond of mutually beneficial friendship (§3). [Undatable.] Click here for translation

[1] "Aura2 favorabilis, que tamquam avis citivola rerum orbem regirat,3 michi nuper suasit, ut in devotionis et dilectionis presagium vobis deberem litteras destinare, in quibus non adulationum blandiciis venativis, non turgida et deceptiva positione verborum, caput vestrum volui demulcere,4 sicut faciunt infiniti, qui metu vel cupiditate acquirendi sublimium personarum ulcera lingere moliuntur."

rubr. pape |  [24r] A
1 See Horace Ep. 1.8 and Boncompagnus 1.3.15. A few papal notaries are listed in POTTHAST Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (Berlin 1874), for Innocent III (1.467, see also his scribe magister P., Po. 1465, Philippus Po. 1585), Honorius III (1.679), Gregory IX (1.939). See HARRY BRESSLAU Handbuch der Urkundenlehre (Leipzig 1889) 1.270. List of curial scribes with duplicate offices under Gregory IX in P.M. BAUMGARTEN "Miscellanea Diplomatica III." Römische Quartalschrift 32 (1924) 51; he counts about 80 scribes of Gregory IX (p. 54). For a social and constitutional history of a medieval guild of curial scribes: BRIGIDE SCHWARZ Die Organisation kurialer Schreiberkollegien von ihrer Entstehung bis zur Mitte des 15. Jahrhunderts (Tübingen 1972).         2 Mirra 19.4; Boncompagnus 4.1.9, 5.24.3.        3 Mirra 5.4 and Boncompagnus prol. 1.1, 3.3, 4.1.8, 5.1.24, 5.4.10, pun on ruling/wandering (regere/regirare or regyrare). Palma 45 and Boncompagnus 1.21.2, 1.25.4, 3.19.8 use this verb more conventionally.          4 Alanus de Insulis De planctu nature (PL 210.469); Liber de obsidione Ancone (ZIMOLO ed.) 5.3; De amicitia (NATHAN ed.) 67; Quinque tabule salutationum 4.70; Oliva 1.5; Boncompagnus 1.13.1 and 5.20.2; Rhetorica novissima 9.4 (GAUDENZI ed. 286-287); Epistola mandativa ad comites palatinos §10. Boncompagno treats the captatio benivolentiae in Palma 28.

[2] "Revera verum est et a veritatis tramite non est aliquatenus alienum, quod infra Registri ecclesie Romane pomeria1 quedam ovicule tonsorate pascuntur, que de alieno vellere balandi telam ordiuntur et texunt,2 quarumdam feminarum abusum crebrius imitantes, que furtivas tricas deferunt in vertice depilato.3 Unde possunt iniuriarum vel furti actione4 legitime conveniri."

1 For pomeria see Palma 1.4, De amicitia 39, Boncompagnus prol. 2.3, 1.23.3 §3, 3.14.2, 4.1.8-9, 4.4.2, 5.1.37.     2Quinque tabule salutationum 4.10, Palma 24.1, Oliva 1.2.       3 On the penalty of shaving the heads of prostitutes: GEORG DAHM Das Strafrecht Italiens in ausgehenden Mittelalter (Leipzig 1935). For the somewhat unusual word tricas (braids or tresses), see also De malo senectutis et senii 10.       4 Digest 47.2, 47.10 and Institutiones 4.12.

[3] "Ex virtutibus igitur meritorum, que preconium vestre laudis extollunt, et scientie claritate, qua precipue in oratoria facultate1 dicimini pollere, vos diligo. Et ferventius diligere iam peropto, quia quod a multis refertur, esse non ambigo estimandum, et actio estimatoria2 inter bonefidei iudicia numeratur. Ego autem inenarrabiliter desidero indissolubili vobis federe couniri, quod utrique parti redundare ad gloriam et honorem valebit, quia cum radici fructuose arboris inseritur alterius fructificantis ramusculus,3 germina novella consurgunt, fructus uberius geminantur et ex dulci mixtura bonorum virtus famosa resultat et redditur ubilibet duplicata."

1 For a papal notary with literary pretensions, see NICHOLAS M. HARING "Liber de dulia et latria of Master Michael, Papal Notary" Mediaeval Studies 33 (1971) 188-200.      2 Digest 19.3.1.      3 Boncompagnus 1.18.7, 1.25.11, 5.22.1.

1.23.6 Littere, in quibus aliquis electus recommendat se sociis, quos dimisit in scolis, commendando vitam scolasticam et conquerendo de gravamine dignitatis.

[1] "De portu quietis et Paradiso scolastice discipline vocavit, immo traxit nos officium prelature, ad quam ...antes."|
...antes | [13rb] P

1.23.7 Responsio, qua benivolentia captatur, sed dicitur, quod nulli volunt dignitatum gravamina evitare. Unde ipsi libenter vellent eadem subire tormenta.

[1] "Antequam esse ...optamus| ... "
 optamus| [24v] A

1.23.8 Littere, quibus aliquis se religiosis personis commendat, in fine regulariter variate.

[1] "In remotis partibus existentes ..."

1.23.9 Littere minorum ad maiores de commendationibus per totum regulariter variate.

[1] "Benignitati vestri ...Vel tam verbo quam opere| vel voce ...balsami redolere| ..."
opere | [13va] P       redo|lere  [25r] A

1.23.10 Notula, in qua distinguitur, quid sit gratia, quid habetur significare in singulari et plurali numero et quid parva sit differentia inter gratias et grates.

[1] Gratia est acceptabilitas, que concipitur in animo persone maioris de minori. Et nota, quod hoc nomen 'gratia' in toto numero singulari est dictio dominabilis et continet in se auctoritatem, dominium et favorem. Unde apostolicus dicit: 'Gratia Dei sum id, quod sum, et gratia eius in me vacua non fuit'.1 Nam et in divina pagina dicitur 'Ante gratiam', idest antequam Christus faceret humanum genus acceptabile ad recipiendum eterne vite merita per incarnationem suam, 'Post gratiam', idest post illud tempus quo data fuit acceptabilitas illa. Unde nos, qui renati sumus ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto. dicimur esse in tempore gratie, idest acceptionis illius vel acceptabilitatis.

1 I Cor. 15.10

[2] Item omnis prelatus subdito, quilibet dominus fideli, omnis magister discipulo et quilibet pater filio potest gratiam exhibere. Preterea in Latine locutione pauci vel nulli dicere consueverunt: 'Gratia refero tibi'; sed Teutonici dicunt frequenter: 'Gratia vobis', idest, laus, et intelligitur ibi hoc verbum 'sit'.

[3] Item nota, quod numquam minor persona maiori dicere debet: 'Gratiam facio vobis' vel 'Gratiam meam habeatis'. Item nota, quod 'gratie' et 'grates' in plurali numero variant modus significandi, quoniam aut habent notare paritatem aut subiectionem. Nam cum a pari profertur, paritatem notat, cum a minori, subiectionem.

[4] Item nota, quod persone infie non debent dicere maioribus 'referimus vobis gratas' vel 'grates', nisi restringant significationem cum idoneis adiectivis, ut 'referimus vobis gratas' vel 'grates subiciales' aut 'humiles' vel 'devotas'| seu 'votivias' vel 'subiectivas' vel 'gratias cum reverentia subiectione' vel 'fidelitate' aut 'devotione'.

devo|tas  [13vb] P
[5] Item alique nudi Garamantes dicunt, quod 'gratie Deo' et 'grates hominibus' debent referri, sed inutiliter oppinantur, quia inter 'gratias' et 'grates' parva est differentia in plurali. Dictiones enim iste parem habent significationem in nominativo et accusativo pluralis numeri et de hac dictione 'grates' non ponuntur, nisi illi soli duo casus, quia non invenuntur plures.

1.23.11 De oblatione reverentie hac devotionis minorum ad maiores.

[1] "Quid retribuam speciali domino et precipuo benefactori ...proposito| in animo preconcepi..."
proposito | [25v] A

1.23.12 Notula, qua doctrina datur, quomodo minores pro amicis debeant maioribus supplicare.

[1] "Quantumcumque de munere gratie vestre confidam pro aliquibus tamen amicis vobis timeo" vel "dubito supplicare, et maxime, cum ad supplicandum pro meipso vix merear sufficiens reperiri." Item: "Audeo, sed non cum audatia ....tunc efficiar| in conspectu omnium... corona vestre benivolentie laureatur ...." Item: "Si pro illo tamquam pro me| ipso vos exoro..."
ef|ficiar  [26r] A             me | [14ra] P

1.23.13 Notula, qua doctrina datur, quomodo porrecte preces debeant exaudiri vel non.

[1] "Sepe inducor, dominationi vestre pro illis rogamina porrigere, a quibus numquam recepi servitium aliquid" vel "honorem. Quere deinceps in fine litterarum, quas penes vos exaudiri optabo, sigillum Salomonis depinguam; in aliis vero faciam unum cifra, ut per hoc intelligatis, quod non curabo, si preces non sortiuntur effectum." Nota, quod huiusmodi signa possunt| fieri et variari, prout fuerit ordinatum.
assumptum | [14rb] P
[2] Item frequenter ille, qui rogat, facit exordium vitiosum ad hoc, quod preces non debeant exaudiri, verbi gratia: "Ad instantiam dilecti amici .Io. vobis duxi humiliter suppliandum, quatenus etc." Vel: "Tantum institit lator presentium, quod nobis duxi has litteras dirigendas, rogans ut eius precamina, si placet, dignemini exaudire." Vel: "Cogit me instantia presentium portitoris, vobis has litteras destinare, in quibus vos deprecor, ut si vobis placuerit, ipsius rogamina exaudire velitis". Vel: "Infinite amicorum persuasiones me supplicare vobis pro latoribus presentium coegerunt, verumtamen in hiis et consimilibus non mea, sed vestra voluntas fiat."
Io.] ideo Schönbach ed            suppliandum] supplicare Schönbach ed
[3] In huiusmodi quippe inspiciat diligentius, quid recipiat inpetrator, alioquin paleam ventilabit. Item consueverunt aliqui magnates habere super huiusmodi ad cautelam privata sigilla.

1.23.14 De statu. Notula, qua distinguitur, quid sit status et quid significare habetur secundum diversos effectus.

[1] Status, secundum quod in eloquentia sumitur, est existendi modus secundum varios accidentium eventus. Vel status est accidens rei, de qua queritur. Vel status est habitudo, qua quis est effectus. Unde cum postulatur, quod de statu persone reddi debeat certitudo, queritur de prosperitate principaliter, quia nemo vellet de illo, quem diligit, audire contrarium. Secundario vero queritur de omni adventu bono vel malo, ex eo quod anima sibi satisfieri cupit de omnibus eventibus rumoribus atque novis. Et tunc dicitur status quasi continentia personarum vel rerum.
secundum Athens Berlin: seculum Siena codd.
[2] Verumtamen hoc nomen 'status', prout derivatur a 'sto stas', prosperitatem| significat. Unde Apostolus: 'Qui se exstimat stare, videat, ne cadat.'1
pros|peritatem [26v] A
1 I Cor. 10.12

[3] Item dicitur aliquando status sumitas vel acumen, ut cum dicitur 'Hoc egritudo est in statu' idest in sumitate, quia omnis egritudo, que per diem tertium terminatur, habet principium statum et declinationem. Et dicitur status illud accumen, ultra quod egritudo extendi non potest.

1.23.15 Notula, qua describitur, quid sit donum et que sit differentia inter dona et quomodo a rebus donatis possit aliquis exordiri.

[1] Donum est, quod nullis intervenientibus precibus exhibetur. Vel donum est, quod ex arbitrii libertate procedit. Vel donum est, quod sponte confertur. Sed multa dicuntur esse dona, que non sunt dona. Nam quicquid voluptatis vel timoris aut debiti vel precum seu verecundie causa confertur, 'donum' dici non debet sed 'datio', quia donum est res honestissima, que semper imitatur opera caritatis.

[2] Nullum tamen reale donum est dilectio, sed dilectionis presagium, quid remanet in animo largitoris. Nam res, que confertur, doni caret effectu, si iocunda voluntas non remanet in animo tribuentis. Quicquid enim sine iocunditate animi tribuitur, non appellatur donum, sed quasi elymosina egenti collata. In omni siquidem re, que nomen 'doni' recipit, debent pariter convenire spontanea tribuentis voluntas et recipientis affectio, cum actionibus gratiarum. Nec tunc esse donum desinet propter vitium assumentis, dummodo exhibitor non delinquat.

tribuitur] tribuatur Athens        appellatur] appellabitur Athens
[3] Consulo tamen universis, ut sua non permittant dona languore. Isti quidem sunt donorum languores: protractio temporis, turbida facies tribuentis, conferentis improperium| et indiscretio donatoris. Hec enim res exhibitas non permittunt 'dona' vocari vel esse. Et sic eiciuntur ab aurea sede in prostibulum vitiorum. Et est notabile, quia donum, quod ex inspirato confertur, sicut manna de celo descendit et uberius letificat animam assumentis. Si vero secundum spem vel promissum fuerit satisfactum speranti, donum erit utile non iocundum, et si aliquod defuerit de pollicitis vel speratis, dehonestabitur munificentia largitoris. Insuper consulo, ne in tot rivulos flumen tui beneficii parciaris, quod particula irrigare nequeat ortulum indigentis, quoniam per aquam, que guttatim labitur, rota volvi non potuit molendini, et de minutis beneficiis non erit erit fama sollempnis. Igitur dignis ad tempus aliqua copiosius largieris, que te silente preconium tue laudis ennarrent.
improperium | [14va] P           dehonestabitur] dehonestabunt Athens      et] nec Athens      non om. Athens
[4] Item sagax orator de rebus donatis exordiri valebit sepius et narrare, verbi gratia: "Cingulum, quod nuper vestra liberalitas michi transmisit, letitiam contulit geminatam et fecit me sicut lilium reflorere, quia per illud et in illo firmiter intellexi, quod me corde sincerissimo peramatis, et hoc signum rei transmisse plenius indicavit. Et quando cum eo cinxi et recinxi lumbos, ex dono ipso dilectionis radii sunt progressi, qui animam et spiritum splendore ammirabili serenarunt."
Item] Ita Athens
[5] Vel: "Desiderabilis amicitia" vel "dominatio vestra me annulo aureo subarravit, cui smaragdus preciossimus est insertus. Aurum vero metalla cuncta precellit, per quod dilectionis" vel "gratie vestre prerogativam intelligo michi esse collatam. Smaragdus nempe ammirabili" vel "superabili" vel "excellenti viriditate clarescit, temperantiam significat et virorem. Unde radios visuales dicitur serenare, quare intelligo, quod intima| cordis vestri sunt michi serena," vel "quod super omnes vestram benivolentiam" seu "gratiam promeruerim obtinere. Nam, cum surgo diluculo et mane sol prius radiat, manum dexteram, in cuius digito est anulus, ante faciem extendo, et tunc auri citrinitas et smaragdi viror per exterioris hominis poros usque ad animam transeunt. Et sic motu quodam imaginario transferri videor ad gaudia Paradisi."
vel] et Athens      cui] tui codd.        precellit] precessit Athens      virorem Siena Berlin Schönbach] vigorem codd.       intima | [27r] A
[6] Hic relinquo infinitas materias oratori, quia ita posset de omnibus metallis et lapidibus, balsamo, specibus et de omnibus rerum generibus, que conferuntur dono invenire ornata genera dicendorum.

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© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998
Scrineum © Università di Pavia 1999