Boncompagnus 5.20 
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5.20 DE RELIGIOSIS ET RELIGIONIBUS

5.20.1. Littere, quas direxi nobili iuveni Ubaldino,1 qui transivit ad religionem.2

Boncompagno sends a letter of encouragement and inspiration to Ubaldinus, a nobleman from Mantua who had entered the Carmelite order as an adolescent. Boncompagno establishes and develops the figure (I Cor. 9.24-26) of a monk as an dedicated athlete running a race (§1-3). From a natural point of view, monastic vocation in such a young nobleman is amazing (§4), but we should not be amazed, because God Himself has chosen Ubaldinus (§5). Nobility of the flesh is a delusion (§6). Ubaldinus has united religion with nobility of the soul (§7). Boncompagno had originally been among those who were saddened by Ubaldino’s choice to join the Carmelites, but is no longer (§8). Exhortation to persevere in his resolve (§9). Boncompagno denies that his own lay status makes him unappreciative of the religious vocation. In scholastic language, Ubaldinus is urged not to swayed from his profession by his own physical beauty and knightly status (§10), nor to accept high church office (§11). Worldly princes are derided as avaricious gourmands, gluttons and nepotists (§12). Ubaldinus has spurned this lot, imitating the other Elyseus, which has aroused the jealousy of scoffers (§13). This ‘other Elyseus’ is the priest Albertus [founder of the Carmelite order], who by his preaching has ‘whitened’ many Italian cities blackened by heresy (§14). Further virtues of Albertus, with reference to the Virgilian prophecy [Ecloge 4.7] (§15). If Ubaldino should continue to run the Lord’s race, following the example of Albertus (§16), he would merit claiming his eternal reward when the third angel blows a trumpet on the part of the elect. [Date: 1206-1214]

1 Not identified.      2 Apparently, to the Carmelite order. See below, §14.

[1] "Currentis propositum in stadio roboratur,1 si currens non incurrat offendiculum temptationum, que navem religionis inter fluctivagos cogitationum incursus faciunt sepius vacillare. Et deficiente velo perseverantie turgida venit ad litus, eliditur inter scopulos, frangitur ad saxa carnalium desideriorum. Et cum tales incipiunt naufragi per mare seculi navigare,2 se novum hominem, qui secundum Deum creatus est, exuunt et veterem cum suis actibus imitari, velut canes qui resumunt vomitum,3 enitantur."

1 1 Cor. 9.24-26.  See JOHN ALEXANDER SAWHILL  The use of athletic metaphors in the Biblical homilies of St. John Chrysostom (Princeton, The Princeton University Press, 1928).     2Boncompagnus 5.22.1 §3, <Epistola ad Philippum electum Ferrarensi> §2.     3 Prov. 26.11, II Pet. 2.22.

     The resolve of a runner is strengthened in the race-course, if the runner does not incur the stumbling-block of temptations, which quite often make the ship of religion vacillate between the wave-tossed onslaught of thoughts. And when the sail of perseverance fails, he comes swollen to the shore, is shattered among the protruding shoals, is broken on the rock of carnal desires. And when such shipwrecks begin to navigate through the ocean of this world, they take off the new man, who was created according to God, and they struggle to imitate the old man with his acts, just as dogs who return to eat their vomit.

[2] "Curre igitur curre, sed ita currere satagas, ut non sit in cursu decursus, quia cuiuscumque pes ad ima rerum mundanarum labitur, cursum impedit et currentem. Sic ergo curre, ut comprehendas, quod fieri non poterit, nisi 'Verbum Domini sit lucerna pedibus et semitis tuis'.1 Et maxime cum non sit volentis neque currentis sed miserentis Dei, qui 'Diriget gressus tuos in semitis suis,' ut tua vestigia nullatenus moveantur,2 qui tibi misericorditer inspiravit, ut portares iugum ab adolescentia tua.3 Unde puer altissimi vocaberis, quia preibis ante faciem Domini4 parare vias eius ad dandam scientiam illis, qui sedent in tenebris et umbra mortis.5 Tu vero assumpsisti pennas ut columbe, volabis et non deficies,6 quia iam quiescere incepisti et fugiendo rerum temporalium affluentiam, tibi solum panem cotidianum postulas elargiri7 et cum situla karitatis aurire peroptas aquas de fontibus Salvatoris, ut non sitias in eternum."8

1 Psal. 118.105.      2 Psal. 16.5.     3 Thren. 3.27.      4 Luc. 1.76.      5 Job 3.5, Psal. 106.10, Luc. 1.79.      6 Psal. 54.7.     7 Luc. 11.3.      8 See Boncompagnus1.16.1, 3.8.1.

     Run, thus run, but busy yourself to run in such a way, so that there should not be a descent in the running, because anyone’s foot will fall to the lowest of worldly things, impedes the run and the runner. Therefore run, so that you comprehend what cannot be done, unless ‘The Word of the Lord shall be a light for your feet and for your paths.’ And especially since <the word of the Lord> is not for one who soars or who runs, but for the wretched of God, who ‘Directs your flocks in His paths’, so that your steps should in no way be moved, who mercifully inspired you to carry the yoke from your adolescence. Whence you will be called a child of the Highest, because you will go forth before the face of the Lord to prepare His ways for giving knowledge to those, who sit in darkness and in the clouds of death. You have indeed put on feathers like a dove, you will fly and you will not fail, because you have begun to repose and fleeing the affluence of temporal things, you ask only that daily bread be granted you and you choose to drink waters from the springs of the Savior with the bucket of charity, so that you not thirst in eternity.

[3] "Res est mira nec admiratione digna."

     It is a marvelous thing, yet not worthy of admiration.

[4] "Mira, quia raro accidere consuevit, quod nobilitas et religio conveniant et presertim in adolescente, cuius viam rex Salomon se penitus ignorare fatetur.1 Est enim illa etas flexibilis et proclivis. Unde in ea consistentes ferventius carnis oblectamenta requirunt et ex etatis teneritudine facilius ad lasciviam provocantur. Sed tu, prout video, mente ac moribus iam senescis2 et in prima vigilia cum sarculo spei et bone operationis vineam dominicam ingrediens. Illos, qui sunt in secunda et tertia vigilia constituti,3 ad operandum invitas exemplo, quia voluisti prius facere quam docere."4

1 Prov. 30.19.      2 Prov. 22.6.     3 Luc. 12.38. A tripartate schema for the ages of man (childhood, youth, oldage) favored by theologians and based on exegesis of this passage from Luke is treated in ELIZABETH SEARS The Ages of Man: Medieval Interpretations of the Life Cycle (Princeton 1986) 88-90. In Libellus de malo senectutis et senii Boncompagno adopts a five stage schema (childhood, adolescence, youth, old age, senility), after considering schemas with seven (Hippocrates) and four (Iohannicius) stages. Boncompagnus 5.9.4 also uses the tripartate schema, with reference to Luke 12.38. Other letters in the Boncompagnus dealing with old age and/or senility: 1.24.2-3, 1.24.6, 1.25.6, 1.25.11 §4, 1.25.13, 3.12.1, 3.14.5, 3.15.2, 5.1.27-30, 5.4.16, 5.6.32-33, 5.8.3, 5.26.5, 6.2.18, 6.2.34, 6.10.18.     4 On this theme, see CAROLINE BYNUM Docere verbo et exemplo. An Aspect of Twelfth-Century Spirituality Harvard Theological Studies 31 (Missoula Montana 1979).

     ‘Marvelous’, because customarily it rarely happens that nobility and religion come together, and especially in an adolescent, whose path king Solomon confessed he did not at all know. For adolescence is a flexible and declining age. Whence those existing in it more fervently seek objects of carnal delight and are more easily provoked to wantonness from the tenderness of that age. But so far as I see, you now grow old in mind and morals and you enter the vineyard of the Lord with the sickle of hope and good works in the first vigil. You invite those for an example in good works, who are constituted in the second and third vigils, because you have wished to act before teaching.

[5] "Nec admiratione digna, quia pater misericordiarum vocat ea, que non sunt, tamquam ea, que sunt, et ex hore infantium et lactentium perfecit laudem, ut inimicos destruat et ultores.1 Sic elegit et preelegit te Dei et hominum mediator,2 ut spreta nobilitate carnis, de qua in seculo poteras gloriari, quia de stirpe florida et generosa originem contraxisti, sortem recipias in regno Christi3 et Dei et excelsi filius nomineris, qui te nobilitabit nobilitate minime peritura."

1 Psal. 8.3.     2 This epithet for Christ was coined in I Tim. 2.5 and theologically elaborated in Augustine Enarratio in Psalmum 29.2-3. Here it seems to be used of the office of a priest.     3 Act. 26.18.

     ‘Not worthy of admiration’, because the Father of mercies calls those which are not, just as those things are, and from the mouths of infants and nursing children He effects praise, so that He may destroy enemies and avengers. So He elected and pre-elected you mediator of God and man, so that spurning the nobility of your flesh, with which you could have flaunted in this world, because you have drawn an origin from a flourishing and bountiful lineage, you receive a portion in the kingdom of Christ and are named the son of God and of the Highest, who will ennoble you with the least perishable nobility.

[6] "Sed nobilitas carnis non est, nisi quedam laus ex parentum altitudine procedens, que a voce ire Dei convertitur in cinerem et favillam,1pro eo quod istiusmodi nobiles talis nobilitatis intuitu efficiuntur ministri Sathane, quia pauperes et impotentes affligunt sepius et tormentant. Sed pereunt divitie, transit nobilitas, evanescit potentia secularis, moritur nobilis, putrescit, vermescit. Et ut verum fatear, idem immo deterior est interitus talis nobilis quam iumenti,2quia deletum est nomen illius de libro vite3et in inferni voragine cruciabitur in eternum."4

1Job 30.19. .      2 Eccle. 3.19. .     3 Apoc. 3.5. .      4 Apoc. 14.10.

     Nobility of the flesh is nothing else but praise proceeding from lofty parentage, which is converted by the voice of an angry God into cinder and ash, because nobles of this sort, by consideration of such a nobility, become ministers of Satan, because they quite often afflict and torment the poor and the powerless. But riches perish, nobility passes by, secular power vanishes, the noble dies, he rots, and is eaten by worms, and as I might confess the truth, the death of such a noble is worse than of a beast, because his name is deleted from the book of life, and he will be tormented in the infernal abyss for eternity.

[7] "Sed religio in te adolescente cum tali nobilitate non convenit sed cum illa, que a fide radicem, ab opere proventum et a karitatis protectione progressum noscitur contraxisse. Unde factus es sponse dilectus et sicut mirre fasciculus inter illius ubera commoraris.1 Ceterum quamquam divina providentia te de lipitudine Lye ad Rachelis amorem clementer evexerit."2

1 Cant. 1.12.       2 Gen. 29.17.

     But religion does not unite with this sort of nobility in you, an adolescent, but with that nobility which is known to draw a root from faith, growth from works and progress from the protection of charity. Whence you are made the beloved of the Bride and you abide among her breasts like a bundle of myrrh. But however divine clemency has advanced you from the eye-watering blindness of Leah to the love of Rachel.

[8] "Nos tamen, qui remansimus in scena crassioris intelligentie,1 de mutatione dextere excelsi,2 tamquam lippi et in opere claudicantes,3 dolemus plurimum et turbamur. De quorum numero ego sum. Immo fui, sed non sum, ex quo video, quod postquam misisti manum in aratrum, retro inspicere contempsisti."4

1Peter of Blois Epistolae no. 6 (PL 207.18B): Verecundum siquidem et onorosum satis est mihi, quod omnes coaetani vestri in montem eminentioris scientie ascenderunt, et vos in ceno crassioris intelligentie cum asino remansistis. Cf. Quintilian Inst. 1.10.28 quosdam imperitiores...‘crassiore’ ut vocant ‘Musa’.     2 Psal. 76.11.    3Hebr. 12.13.        4 Luc. 9.62. Also on Boncompagno’s status (lay or clerical): Oliva 1.4, Boncompagnus 5.9.5.

     Yet we who remain in a stage of a more crass intelligence, like men blind and defective in works, we grieve much and are disturbed concerning a change of the left hand of the Highest. I am one of these. Rather I was, but I am not, because I see that after you had put hand to the plough, you disdained to look back.

[9] "Et que retro sunt obliviscens, te ad anteriora iam extendis.1 Ea igitur miles Christi, accingere gladio Spiritus super femur tuum potentius2 et noli prius solvere militie cingulum,3 quam cedat adversitas preliorum. Sed persevera, insta, pulsa, realiter inchoata sectare, considerans quod tui fratres, consanguinei, amici, fideles, servi et ancille pro se non pro te dolent, quod iugum Domini assumpsisti. Profecto, si alicuius egritudinis distemperantia de medio fuisses iudicio funereo superveniente sublatus, sepulto corpore,4 cessaret effusio lacrimarum, quia lacrimis nichil citius arrescere comprobatur."

1Philipp. 3.13.      2 Psal. 44.4.     3 Isai. 5.27.     4 For Boncompagno’s interest in death and dying: Boncompagnus 1.25-27.

     And those things which were in the past are forgotten, you now extend yourself ahead. Thus come, soldier of Christ, strap on the sword of the Spirit more powerfully on your thigh, do not wish to loosen the knight’s girdle before the adversity of battle ceases, but persevere, press, strike, pursue inchoate things in reality, considering that your brothers, relatives, friends, trusties, servants and maids grieve for him, not for you, that you have assumed the yoke of the Lord. Indeed if, when the funereal judgment had supervened, you would have been carried off by the distemper of any sickness, the effusion of tears would have ceased once the body was buried, because nothing may be proved to dry up more quickly than tears.

[10] "Ad hec, si aurum conscientie mee laicalis ferugo denigret, noli considerare, quod fuscus sim, quia decoloravit me1 rerum humanarum ambitio. Sed propter hoc non respuas persuasiones salutiferas, quia transit aqua dulcis per lapideos canales2 et eos acuit gladium, cum et illa secare non possit. Preterea, si diabolica suggestio tibi obiecerit de proprii corporis forma, nega premissam. Et si ex inconcesso inferat, insta, propere, locum ab auctoritatibus assumendo. Dicas quidem: 'Fallax gloria et vana est pulchritudo, flos feni3 est vapor ad modicum tepens.4 Cadunt enim alba ligustra et omnis forme dignitas aut morbo deflorescit aut consumitur vetustate.' Nam etsi angelus Sathane te colaphizando5 superare laboret, illam, que dormit in sinu tuo, refrena et fuge, quoniam in illo prelio solummodo fugiendo poteris obtinere victoriam, sicque geminabis in fuga virtutem."

1Cant. 1.5.      2 Cf. Boncompagnus 5.1.8.     3 I Peter 1.24, cf. Mirra 9.2, Boncompagnus 1.25.3.    4Jac. 4.14 (vapor est ad modicum parens), cf. Mirra 9.1, Boncompagnus 1.25.3.     5 J. FLORI "Semantique et societe medievale: le verb ‘adouber’ et son evolution au XIIe siecle" Annales ESC 31 (1976) 915-40

     To this, if the rust of laity has blackened the gold of my conscience, I do not wish to consider that I might be dark-colored, because the ambition of human things has discolored me. But I do not on this account reject salvation-bearing persuasions, because sweet water passes through stony channels and when a sword cannot cut these things, it sharpens those things. Therefore if a diabolical suggestion would make an objection to you concerning the beauty of your own body, deny the premise. And if an inference is made from an unconceded point, hasten, press, taking a commonplace from authorities. You may say for example, ‘Glory is deceiving and beauty is vain, the flower of the field is a vapor appearing for a moment. For white privets fall, and every dignity of beauty deflowers from sickness or is consumed by age.’ And if the angel of Satan labors to conquer you by dubbing you a knight, restrain that one which sleeps in your breast and flee, since you can only obtain victory in that battle by fleeing, and so you will double virtue in flight.

[11] "Insuper expectabat te alicuius dignitas presulatus.1 Sed tu eam expectare nullomodo voluisti, sed expectans expectasti Dominium et intendit tibi, quia eduxit te de lacu miserie et de luto fecis.2 Et quoniam a maiori sanctuario incepit iniquitas,3 huiusmodi ecclesiarum prelati et subditi ex maiori parte sunt filii Belial,4 qui extentis collis et fractis cervicibus5 circumpositi et circumhornati variis indumentis incedunt et deaurantur velut similitudo Templi,6 quorum deus venter est et gloria in confusione perhenni."7

1It is not clear which episcopal office awaited Ubaldinus.     2 Psal. 39.3.      3 Cf. Num. 18.1. Cf. Boncompagnus 4.5.9.     4 Deut. 13.13, Iud. 19.21, I Reg. 2.12, II Reg. 16.7, III Reg. 21.10.      5 Boncompagnus 1.20.17. Cf. I Reg. 4.18 and Isai. 3.16      6 Psal. 143.12.      7 Phil. 3.19.

     Moreover the dignity of some presulate awaits you. But you wish in no way to await an office, but waiting, you await the Lord, and He directs to you, because He brought you out from the lake of misery and the mire of filth. And since iniquity of this sort begins from a greater sanctuary, prelates and subjects of churches are for the most part sons of Belial, who advance surrounded by strangled and broken necks and robed in varied garments, and they are gilded just as a copy of the Temple, whose god is the belly and glory in perennial confusion.

[12] "Verum quia non est tutum ledere seculi principes in sermone, taceo quomodo sedent super fercula carnium, qualiter vinum inspiciunt, cum flavescit, cum splenduerit in vitreo color eius.1 Et sic in diversis potationum generibus debachantes, deaurari faciunt sellas et frena, loco pauperum pascunt pinguissimos palafredos, sue karitatis manum ad fratres et nepotes totis affectionibus extendentes."

     Indeed because it is not safe to affront the princes of this world in speech, I shall hush about how they sit above dishes of meat, how they inspect wine when it becomes golden, when its color shines in the glass. And so debauching in diverse types of drinks, they have their chair and bridles gilded, they pasture fat palfreys on the ground of paupers, extending the hand of their charity to brothers and nephews with all affections.

1 For the use of food and drink for noble Repräsentation, see Mahl und Repräsentation: Der Kult ums Essen. Internationales Symposion der Universität Salzburg, Institut für Geschichte, 29. April – 1. Mai 1999.  (Proceedings to be published in 2000).

[13] "Tu vero, licet non esses ex illis, illorum tamen consortium1 fugiendo sprevisti carnalia desideria, que militant adversus animam, et secutus es alterum Elyseum. Unde cum irrisoribus zelum calui non sentiens, sed erit portio tua in terra viventium,2 quoniam ad predicationem illius reposuisti thesauros tue iuventutis in celis, ubi fures non effodiunt nec furantur."3

1For the consorteria, see Epistola mandativa ad comites palatinospassim.    2Psal. 141.6.      3Matt. 6.19-20.

     Although you were not one of them, yet in fleeing their consorteria you have spurned the bodily pleasures which fight against the soul, and you imitate the other Elyseus. Whence, not understanding I have aroused jealousy with scoffers, but your portion will be in the land of the living, since for his preaching you have deposited the treasures of your youth in heaven, where thieves may not dig up nor steal.

[14] "Quis enim sit hic Elyseus plenus tu ipse novisti, sed ut plurimi sciant, in commune deducam. Alter enim Elyseus est presbyter et sacerdos Albertus,1 qui presbyter merito dici potest, quoniam ambulantibus in regione umbre mortis2 verbo et exemplo prebet munera karitatis. Sacerdos quidem est, quia secundum ordinem magni sacerdotis Melchisedech sacra propinat et crucem Domini baiulando, in ipsius ara seipsum pro peccatis omnium non desinit assidue immolare.3 Albertus quippe dicitur, quoniam albet recte vel rectus. Nam predicationes et opera eius iam faciunt non paucas Italie civitates albere, que nigretudine plurimarum heresum erant instigante diabolo tenebrate.4 Albet quidem per fidei puritatem et super nivem dealbatur per salutifere doctrine pabula, quibus auditorum corda non desinit assidue refovere."

1 St. Albert of Vercelli, patriarch of Jerusalem and founder of the Carmelite order. LAURA MINGHETTI "L’episcopato vercellese di Alberto durante i primi anni del XIII secolo" in Vercelli nel secolo XIII. Atti del Primo Congresso Storico Vercellese (Vercelli 1982) 99-112; IDEM "Alberto vescovo di Vercelli (1185-1205). Contributo per una biografia" Aevum 59 (1985) 267-304; VINCENZO MOSCA Alberto Patriarca di Gerusalemme Textus et studia historica Carmelitana 20 (Rome: Institutum Carmelitanum, 1996); also of interest for Albert in his role as Carmelite legislator is: CARLO CICONETTI La regola del Carmelo. Origine, Natura, Significato (Rome, Institutum Carmelitanum, 1973).  For letters pertaining to the election of Albert by the suffragens of Jerusalem, see Boncompagnus 5.1.1-2, also RUDOLF HIESTAND and HANS EBERHARD MAYER "Die Nachfolge des Patriarchen Monarchus von Jerusalem" Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde 74 (1974) 109-130.     2Psal. 22.4. .      3 Psal. 109.4 and Hebr. 5.6, 5.10, 6.20, 7.1,10,11,15,17. .      4 For some Italian cities fouled by heresy, Boncompagnus 5.22.1 §2.

     For who might be this Elyseus, you yourself know fully, but so that many might know, I shall make it public. For the other Elyseus is the presbyter and priest Albertus, who can deservedly be called a presbyter, since he offers by word and example gifts of charity to those walking in the region of the shadow of death. He is a priest, because he delivers holy things according to the order of the great priest Melchisedech and announcing the cross of the Lord he does not cease to sacrifice himself for the sins of all at the altar of the Lord. He is called Albertus, since he is ‘whitened’ (albet) ‘correctly’ (recte vel rectus). For his works and preaching now make no few cities of Italy to be whitened, which cities were darkened by the blackness of many heresies by the devil’s instigation. He also whitens through purity of faith, and, whitened beyond snow through the pabulum of saving doctrine, he does not cease to assiduously nurture the hearts of his audience.

[15] "Sed 'O Mantua natum est tibi lilium inter spinas et inter tribulos rosa iam crevit.'1 Sicque contines in gremio Virgilio potiorem, quoniam hic in spiritu et veritate adorat novam progeniam, quam ille in gentilitatis errore prophetavit alto celo dimitti.2 Rectus quidem est, quia quod verbis predicat, operibus et exemplis demonstrat. Non enim est de numero illorum sacerdotium, qui super humeros hominum imponunt onera gravia et importabilia, digito autem suo nolunt ea movere.3 Non est etiam de illis, qui querunt salutationes in foro et desiderant vocari ab hominibus 'rabbi',4 petendo instantissime decimas usque ad anetum et cuminum, et5 quando missarum sollempnia celebrant, quasi ex debito requirunt denarium et candelam."

1Cant. 2.2 and Boncompagnus 1.3.7, 5.22.1.   2 Vergil Ecloge 4.7. For the importance of this verse, see KARL STRECKER "Iam nova progenies caelo demittitur alto." Studi Medievali3 5 (1932) 167-186.   3 Matt. 23.4.    4Matt. 23.7.    5 Matt. 23.23.

     But ‘O Mantua a lily has been born unto you among spines and a rose now grows among brambles.’ And so you continue stronger in the Virgilian bosom, since he adores in the Spirit and Truth the new child, which Virgil prophesied in the error of heathens would be sent down from high heaven. Indeed he is upright, because that which he preaches in words, he demonstrates by the examples of works. For he is not of the number of those priests who impose weighty and insupportable burdens on the shoulders of men, but do not wish to move them with their finger. He is also not of those who seek greetings in the forum and desire to be called by men ‘rabbi’, seeking tithes urgently up to a duck or a cumin, and when they celebrate the solemnities of mass, they ask for money and for candles almost as if owed.

[16] "Sed quis est hic orthodoxe fidei minister, ecclesie catholice cultor, extirpator heresum et lucerna super candelabrum in Domini domo relucens?1 Ad huius namque vocis et operis exemplum per viam mandatorum altissimi currere incepisti.2 Curre igitur et taliter in agone contende, ut cum tertius angelus tuba canet,3 in electorum parte resurgas et bravium, pro quo curris, accipere merearis."

1 Num. 8.3, Sir. 26.22.           2Psal. 118.32.        3 Apoc. 8.10.

      But who is this minister of the orthodox faith, cultivator of the catholic church, extirpator of heresies and lamp lighting in the house of the Lord above a candelabrum? You have begun to run by the road of the mandates of the Highest to the example of his voice and works. Therefore, run, and contend thus in the struggle, that when the third angel blows the trumpet on the part of the elect, you shall rise up and merit to receive the heavenly award for that which you run.



[For discussion of "nobilità" among later Italian authors, see Dante's Convivio and also RABIL, ALBERT ed. Knowledge, goodness, and power: the debate over nobility among quattrocento Italian humanists  (Binghamton 1991).]

 
 

5.20.2. Littere ad comitissam Sophiam,1 que in puelari etate recepit habitum monachalem.

Boncompagno sends a letter to countess Sophia, daughter of Gualdrada and count palatine Guido Guerra III, encouraging her to maintain her religious vows. [Date: before 1213]

[1] "Verbum patris, quod erat in principio apud Deum, tuorum precedentibus votis parentum tibi divinitus inspiravit, ut eructaret cor tuum verbum bonum et diceres opera tua regi.2 Sed scire debes, filia, quid sit istud verbum et quis rex, cui opera tua dixisti. Hoc enim fuit verbum: 'Ipsi sum desponsata, cui angeli serviunt',3 quod per verbum Dei virtutem prompsisti, quando sponso celesti tue virginitatis meruisti famosum titulum dedicare. Profecto rex iste rex est omnium regum, dominus dominantium,4 cui celestia et terrestria famulantur. Talis est sponsus tuus, talis est dilectus tuus.5 Speciosus est forma pre filiis hominum6 et sponsas diligit, que forma clareant et virtutum meritis renitescant. Hic introduxit te in cubiculum suum7, accingens collum tuum lapidibus preciosis et exornans pectus castitatis armilla, ut in ipsius presentia sicut lilium reflorescas8 et velud odor balsami9 sis in conspectu eius."

puelari: puerili S puellari ABMB2P3       diceres RB2MS: dicens A      istud: illud P3       rex: res A      tua opera tr. A dixisti: direxisti AS          verbum: Dei premit B2 verbi SBP3        prompsisti RAB2: promsisti SMB      tue celesti tr. S terrestria: terrestia AMS        Speciosus--renitescant om. B          renitescant: renitenscant B2        suum: tuum P3      armilla: armila A            in om. S         reflorescas: reflorescat S          odor: ordo M
1Sophia is the daughter of Gualdrada and Guido Guerra III. See Boncompagnus 1.25.112 Psal. 44.2.     3 Not found. See below, note 27, Rota veneris 12.2   4 I Tim. 6.15.   5 Cant. 6.16.  6 Psal. 44.3.    7 Cant. 3.4 and 1.3.       8 Isai. 35.1, Os. 14.6, Cant. 2.1     9Sir. 24.20.

     The word of the Father, which was with God at the beginning, has divinely inspired you, your parents' vows having preceded, so that your heart would cast out a good word and you would speak your works to the king. But you should know what this word is and who is the king, to whom you have spoken your works. This was the word: ‘I am betrothed to He whom the angels serve,’ that you had promised virtue through the word of God, when you had deserved to dedicate the famous title of your virginity to the Heavenly Groom. This king is the king of all kings, lord of all lords, whom both heavenly and earthly beings serve. Such is your Groom, such is your Beloved. His form is handsome beyond all the sons of men, and He loves brides who sparkle with beauty and shine with the merits of virtue. He has led you into his bedchamber, draping your neck with precious stones and decorating your chest with the necklace of chastity, and in his presence you flower like a lily and are like the odor of balsam in his sight.

[2] "Audi ergo filia et vide et inclina aurem tuam1 et obliviscere omnium adulationum blanditias venativas et deceptiva mortalium blandimenta,2 qui vitiorum incentiva sectantur et proprie deservire cupiunt voluptati. Si autem nituntur murum tui propositi expugnare, gladium Spiritus, quod est verbum Dei,3 assumas et verbo tue professionis percute suasores fortius contradicens: 'Ipsi sum desponsata, cui angeli serviunt, cuius pulcritudinem sol et luna mirantur, unde quemlibet terrenum amatorem contempno.'4 Si prosapie nobilitas allegatur, inducas exemplum beatissime Catherine,5 que, cum esset filia regis et virginitatis ac forme gloria refloreret, maluit pro suo et tuo sponso subire martyrium temporale quam paganorum erroribus consentire. Illa namque de regalibus lumbis processit, tu vero es filia comitis palatini. Illa regina fuit, tu vero comitissa, et tamen eundem sponsum cum illa iam habes, regem videlicet regum. Unde facta es de comitissa regina,6 et ita sedebis ad regis dexteram in vestitu deaurato circumamicta varietate."7

inclina: et add. B2         adulationum: adullationum M         sectantur: seccantur M      cupiunt: cupimus tr. ante deservire S        autem: vero B2         expugnare: expurgare S expungnare B      verbo: verbum A        cuius--mirantur B2: om. ABMSRP3        terrenum om. S        amatorem: amorem B2        prosapie: pro sapientie B          inducas: in duas B2       Catherine ASB: Caterine B2M Katherine R          ac: et R         forme: forma B2       martyrium: martirium ABB2       filias es tr. SAB2       es om. B        circumamicta: circumdata R         varietate: etc. B
1 IV. Reg. 19.16, Psal. 16.6, 85.1.    2 Alanus de Insulis De planctu nature (PL 210.469); Liber de obsidione Ancone (ZIMOLO ed.) 5.3; De amicitia 23.3, 29.2, 39.2; Quinque tabule salutationum 4.10; Oliva 1.5; Boncompagnus 1.13.1 and 1.23.5; Rhetorica novissima9.4 (GAUDENZI ed. 286-287); Epistola mandativa ad comites palatinos §103 Eph. 6.17. See Boncompagnus 5.22.24 Not found. See above, note 17, Rota veneris 12.25 St. Catherine of Alexandria, patron saint of philosophers, rhetoricians, scholars, notaries and nuns. A model of female oratorical genius, she was an obvious example for Boncompagno to offer Sophia. Jacobus de Voragine Legenda Aurea (ed. TH. GRAESSE 789-797) and VITEAU Passion des saints Ecaterine et Pierre d’Alexandrie (Paris 1897). Excerpts of the passio (BHL 1658-1660) in H. VARNHAGEN Zur Geschichte der Legende der Katherine von Alexandria (Erlangen 1891) 4-5, 10-18, 5. Now see A.P. ORBAN ed. Vitae Sanctae Katharinae (Turnholt 1992) = Corpus Christianorum. Continuatio Mediaevalis 119-119A.   6 On the striving of a German ducal family for royal status, see JOHANNES FRIED "Königsgedanken Heinrichs von Löwen" Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 55 (1973) 312-351.   7Psal. 44.15.

      O daughter, listen and see and incline your ear and forget the hunting flatteries of all adulation and deceptive fawning of mortals, who follow the incentives of vices, and wish to serve a selfish desire. But if they strive to assault the wall of your resolve, take up the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, and strike these persuaders with the word of your oath, forcefully contradicting: ‘I am betrothed to he whom the angels serve, thus I reject any earthly lover.’ If nobility of lineage is alleged, introduce the example of saint Catherine, who although she was a king’s daughter and flourished in the glory of her form and virginity, she preferred to submit to temporal martyrdom for her and your Spouse than to consent to the errors of the heathens. For she issued from royal loins, you indeed are the daughter of the count palatine, she was a queen, you a countess, and yet you now have same Spouse with her, namely the king of kings. Whence from a countess you have become a queen, and so you will sit at the right side of the king, in gilded raiment, cloaked in multicolored garb.

[3] "Item consueverunt adulatores instare circa dignitatem forme, pulchritudinem in membris corporeis per singula distinguendo, quibus instandum est prope. Ne dolosa persuasio invalescat, dicas quidem, 'Pelle et carnibus Deus me vestivit et ossibus et nervis me compegit.1 De terra sum et in terram ibo, quia omnis caro fenum et omnis gloria eius velut flos agri.'2 Nam omnis pulchritudo similis est rose, que colligitur de spineto, cuius tripertitum colorem in amenitate florida comprehendunt radii visuales et ipsius fragrantiam nares attrahunt de propinquo, ut in suavitate odoris natura delectabilius recreetur. Sed paulo post rosa pallescit, evanescit odor et subera desicantur. Fallax igitur est gloria et vana est pulchritudo."3

instare adulatores tr. A       prope: propere B2       nervis: Deus add. RB       fenum MBS: senum       amenitate: aminitate R       fragrantiam legi: flagrantiam BB2S fraglantiam ARM       paulo: est add. RB       subera: substantia M       desicantur legi: desicatur MSB desiccatur AR       vana est: est om. M
 1 Iob. 10.11.   2 I Peter 1.24; cf. Boncompagnus 5.20.1 §10.   3Boncompagnus 5.20.1 §10.

      Adulators are accustomed to be insistent about the dignity of form, distinguishing beauty in the corporeal members, for which it is insisted upon. Lest a harmful persuasion succeed, you may say, ‘God has clothed me with skin and flesh and God has constructed me from bones and nerves. I am of the land, I will go in the land, because all flesh is decaying and all its glory is like the flower of the field.’ For all beauty is similar to the rose which is gathered among thorns, whose trebled color the visual rays comprehend in florid amenity, and noses draw its fragrance from nearby, so that nature is desirably recreated in the suavity of the odor. But a little while after the rose pales, its odor vanishes and the cork dries out. Thus glory is fallacious and beauty is futile.

[4] "Mulier timens Deum1 ipsa laudatur, quia mulier fortis2 vix potest inveniri procul. Stude itaque filia, stude, ut sis mulier fortis et timens Deum, qui te in suam sponsam eligit, volens ut sibi tua opera debeas enarrare3 et non alicui viro terreno. Profecto, que viris carnalibus copulantur, multis gravaminibus et afflictionibus opprimuntur, quia sepe viri formosas contempnunt uxores et occasiones frivolas queritantes matrimonii compagem dissolvunt. Interdum etiam spreto uxorali thoro minus formosas vel ex toto deformes amant et aliquando ancillis et pedisequis debitum voluptatis exsolvunt."

potest vix tr. S         enarrare: ennarrare B2M         debeas enarrare: ennarrares S         frivolas om. S         etiam: et BR         et pedisequis R: vel pedisetis AMB vel pedissetis B2S
1 Jud. 8.29.   2 Sir. 26.2.   3 Sir. 17.8, 18.2.

     A God-fearing woman should herself be praised, because a strong woman can hardly be found at all. Therefore strive, o daughter, strive that you may be a strong woman and fearing God, who chose you as His Bride, wishing that you should recount your works to Him, and not to any earthly man. Indeed those who are joined to carnal men are oppressed in many ways by burdens and afflictions, because men often contemn beautiful women, and seeking frivolous pretexts they dissolved the connection of matrimony. Meanwhile spurning their marriage bed, they loved less beautiful or completely ugly women, and sometimes they repay the debt of lust to servant girls and to foot-women.

[5] "Nam in hiis omnibus est afflictio et oppressio dolorosa. Sed posito, quod mulieres sint in pace omnimoda maritorum et ab eis multimode venerentur. Nonne in gravidatione pallent, fastidiunt, suspirant, ingemiscunt et excepto dolore partus non est incognitum, quot et quanta consueverunt parturientibus gravamina provenire et, quod est dolor super omnes dolores,1 filii et filie, quos nutrierant, aliquando moriuntur. Talium ergo mulierum gaudium luctus in fine consumit,2 quia non potest absque dolore dimitti, quod cum amore possideri videtur. Sed tu, ab hiis curis et cognationibus libera, confidenter dicere potes opera tua regi regum,3 qui te 'Sophiam' voluit nominare, quod Sacra Scriptura interpretari 'sapientiam' consuevit. Sis ergo sapiens, ut sapientie radiis illustreris et cum prudentibus virginibus tuam procures eligere portionem.4 Nos vero te in Domino monemus propensius et hortamur, ut sic in tuo proposito perseveres et perseverare labores, quod accensa lampade ianuam regni celestis cum eis ingredi merearis, ante gloriosam sponsi tui faciem perpetuo regnatura."

posito: posita S       partus: parcus A       quot: quod B       consueverunt: consueverint S       nutrierant aliquando: nutrierunt S       cognationibus: cogitationibus B       te: tu A       voluit nominare: nominaris A       consuevit tr. ante sapientiam A       Sis: Sic A       ergo: sis add. A       te tr. R post Domino       hortamur: ortamur B2M       labores: laborares A       gloriosam: gloriam B
1 Jer. 8.18.      2 Esth. 9.22, 13.17, 16.21, Lam. 5.15, Bar. 4.32, Jer. 31.13, Jac. 4.9. See Boncompagnus 5.22.3. 3Psal. 44.2. 4 Matt. 25.4.

     For there is a painful affliction and oppression in all these things. But I posit that women may be in comprehensive peace with their husbands, and might be venerated by them in various ways. Do they not pallor, feel loathing, sigh and groan under heavy burden? And not to speak of childbirth itself, it is not unknown how many and what great burdens arise for those bearing children, and what is sadness beyond all sadness, sometimes the sons and daughters which they have nurtured may die. In the end, grief consumes the joy of such women, because that which seems to be possessed with love, cannot be given up without pain. But you, free from these cares and thoughts, can confidently speak your works to the King of Kings, who wished to name you ‘Sophia’, which is customarily translated in Holy Scripture as ‘wisdom’. Thus you must be wise, so that you may be ennobled by the rays of wisdom, and so you may take care to elect your portion with the prudent virgins. Indeed we carefully warn and exhort you in the Lord, that you so persevere in your resolve and labor to persevere, that you would merit to enter with the <prudent virgins> the door of the heavenly kingdom, lamps lit, to reign perpetually before the glorious face of your Groom.

5.20.3 De monachis nigris, qui volunt ad Claravalensium religionem transire. Unde consulunt quosdam Claravalenses, quid eis videatur.1

[1] "Significatione vocabuli diligenti examinatione librata, pauci vel nulli possunt hodie in nigrorum ordine reperiri, qui regulariter valeant monachi nuncupari, si vera est ethimologia, qua monachus dicitur unus tristis. Unde singulariter et cum silentio sedere tenetur et vacare officio. Nos enim extra claustrum assidue pervagamur, carnes usque ad generationem tedii manducamus, diversa vinorum genera degustantes. Quid plura? Spernimus per omnia monasticam disciplinam et nichil secundum beati Benedicti regulam operamur. Nam si quis esset inter nos, qui vellet in aliquo regulam observare, ab omnibus derideretur et tamquam ethnici et publicani eius consortium evitatur, quia non est, qui faciat bonum nec etiam usque ad unum."

1 For the controversial literature between the monastic orders, see A. H. BREDERO Cluny et Citeaux au douzieme siecle. L'histoire d'une controverse monastique (Amsterdam 1985). Some of the principle texts are: Libellus de diversis ordinibus et professionibus qui sunt in ecclesia ed. GILES CONSTABLE, B. SMITH (Oxford 1972); Nigellus 'Speculum stultorum' and 'Contra curiales et officiales clericos' ed. by THOMAS WRIGHT in The Anglo-Latin Satirical Poets and Epigrammatists of the Twelfth Century (Rolls Series 59, London 1872) 82-96 and 210; Jacques de Vitry Historia orientalis ed. J.F. HINNEBUSCH (Fribourg 1972); St. Bernard 'Apologie de Guillaume Saint-Thierry' ed. J. LECLERCQ, H. ROCHAIS S. Bernardi Opera 3 (Rome 1963); Peter the Venerable Letters ed. GILES CONSTABLE (Cambridge Mass. 1967) letters 28 and 111. For the polemic between regulars and seculars, Rupert of Deutz 'Altercatio monachi et clerici quod liceat monacho praedicare' cf. JOHN VAN ENGEN Rupert of Deutz (Berkeley 1983)

[2] "Optantes igitur fugere germina viperarum et ad Claravallentium fratrum collegium tamquam de turbida tempestate ad portum securissimum devenire, dominationem et amicitiam vestram duximus attentius exorandam, ut nos vestris litteris certificare velitis, quid vobis de nostro proposito videatur."

5.20.4 Responsio, quod veniant et tardent.

[1] "Scientie naturalis inquisitores nigrum colorem fore mortis indicativum perhibent et affirmant. Unde, si nigredo in apostasi apparet, mortem predicunt. Profecto monstra et fantasmata infernalium nigro colore pinguntur, et illi, qui de morte carorum tristantur, se nigras induunt vestes, ut per nigredinem et dolorem videantur esse mortuo consepulti. Nec obviat, quod dicitur 'Nigra sum sed formosa,' quia ibi dicitur de nigritudine secundum formam et non secundum accidens casuale."

[2] "Egrediamini ergo de terra Ethiopum horridorum, egrediamini de illorum consortio, qui nigras habent animas et cucullas, de quibus dicitur pessime mentis animeque nigre crimina dira. Et properate et venite ad Claravallem, in qua claret ordo monastiche discipline, in qua fratres vitam apostolicam exercentes, propriis non desinunt manibus laborare, illud propheticum adimplentes, labores manuum tuarum manducabis, beatus es et bene tibi erit. Hec est enim illa Claravallis, que implebitur et exaltabitur super montes et colles, qui superbis et elatis monachis figurantur. Nec dico 'monachis', quia esset discoherentia in adiectio."

[3] "Consultationi siquidem vestre sic respondimus, sic suasimus et desinimus suadere, cupientes ut non porteris nomina monachorum in vanum, quia nil refert, si vocaliter 'monachi' appellamini, sicut nil refert, si molendinarii 'vicecomites' appellantur, cum asinos onerant et ipsis ligna relevant a postremis."

5.20.5 Responsio cum dissuasione, ut numquam veniant.

[1] "Displicere vestre serenitati videre ordo nigrorum et eorum conversationem reputatis per omnia inhonestam. Unde illorum consortium relinquere peroptatis et ad Claravallensium fratrum collegium devenire, quare nos consulere voluistis, quis sit vobis in hac parte agendum. Nos vero, licet sumus de ordine Claravallensi, non duximus veritatem occultare amicis, ne forsitan ex post facto haberetis materiam conquerendi. In sinceritate igitur cordis vestre duximus dilectioni firmiter consulendum, ne veniatis in hunc locum tormentorum, quia quando putabitis evadere Scillam, incidetis absque dubio in Charibdum. Non enim deberet dici 'clara vallis', immo tenebrosa, quoniam fratres illius ordinis in tenebris commorantur et super cunctos mortales iugiter affliguntur."

[2] "In primis quidem apponitur nobis panis, qui aliquando conficitur de farinis hordei, spelte, siliginis et frumenti, aliquando siliginis et fabarum. Nec in attaminario1 farine ponuntur, sed tali cribro cribrantur, quod furfurem et farinam emittit et vix lapillos atque longas potest retinere aristas. Mustum autem nostrum in canalibus adaquatur. Unde talis est potus. Pulmenta nostra sunt fabe, faseoli, orobi, cicera, lentes, panicum2 et mocate3 sine aliquo condimento. Hebemus namque in diebus festinis lagana4 semicocta, pastillos, caseum et olera male parata et aliquando simplices herbas et acrumina5 generum diversorum. De piscibus non est dicendum, quia vix nobis in anno decies apponuntur.

1attaminare (DU CANGE 1.455): purgare farinam setacio (sieve). This description of the cloister life of Cistercians should be compared with Caesarius von Heisterbach.        2 genus annonae, qua in quibusdam locis homines vice panis sustentantur.      3 mocum (DU CANGE 5.432): a type of bean.       4 flat- or pancake.       5bitter herbs such as dandilion

[3]Verumtamen, qui super nos habent potestatem, in victualibus et indumentis prerogativam obtinent et benefici vocantur. De nocte quidem in officiis et vigiliis cruciamur et in die tamquam silvestres rustici omnia manualia opera exercemus, orationes et jejunium nullatenus omittentes."

[4] "Silentium autem quasi perpetuum conservamus, sed in ipsa quiete silentii, quod voce non promimus, signis et nutibus indicamus.1 Porro qui nobilis est, brachium erigit, ut hastam et lanceam probet suos consanguineos deportasse. Unde se innuit titulo nobilitatis pollere. Postmodum ad dehonestandum illum, qui fuit de prosapia rusticana, super humerum apponit aliquod lignum, ut indicet parentelam illius portasse ligones, aut aliquibus indiciis fingit se fodere vel arare vel portare fimum in collo ad hoc, quod eum plenius dehonestet. Alius vero aliquando ponit sibimet digitum super nasum, ut alterius nasum per minas incidere videatur. Et ita minantur sibi ad invicem inferre verbera, eruere oculos et truncare linguas. Inproperatur etiam alicui per aliqua signa, qualiter nudus ad monasterium venerit aut qualia detulerit indumenta. Et ita signis, nutibus, et indiciis ad invicem se intelligunt, et inferunt improperia de criminibus abhorrendis. Quibus dictis corda fluctuant plurimorum et sicut credimus, verecundia magis quam religio multos ibi detinet in suspenso."

1 On the sign speech of Cictercians, see REINHOLD KöHLER Kleine Schriften 2.493; of the Clunicacs, WALTER JARECKI Signa loquendi. Die cluniacensischen Signa-Listen (Baden-Baden 1981); on monastic sign language G. VAN RIJNBERK Le language par signes chez les moines (Amsterdam 1953), J. UMERIKER-SEBEOK and TH.-A. SEBEOK Monastic Sign Languages (New York 1987); on gestures in general JEAN-CLAUDE SCHMITT La raison des gestes (Paris 1990).

5.20.6 De commendatione vite fratrum predicatorum.1

[1] "Fratres, que predicatores dicuntur, apostolicam ducuntur vitam in terris, quia verbo predicationis multos hedificant ad salutem, maxime cum nil voce predicent, quod opere non studeant adimplere."

1 Boncompagnus 5.20.6-9 have been edited by ANTON E. SCHöNBACH Beiträge zur Erkarung altdeutcher Dichtwerke, II SB Wien, Phil-hist. Kl. 145 (1903) 68.

5.20.7 De detractione, que fit contra eos.

[1] "Fratres, que predicatores vocantur, in bove et asino arare videntur, quia in canonico et monastico habitu et officio sunt permixti. Unde possunt canonici et monachi appellari, et in eo quod sunt monachi, ad predicandum ire non debent, maxime cum ex antiquorum patrum statutis et ipsa nominis interpretatione atque regula monastice discipline sedere debeat monachus et silere."

5.20.8 De commendatione vite fratre minorum.1

[1] "Fratres Minores vere possunt inter discipulos Domini computari, quia spernendo secularia desideria carnem suam macerant et tormentant et Christum nudis pedibus et cilicio induti sequuntur."2

1 cc. 5.20.8-9 appear in P. LEONARDUS LEMMENS Testimonia minora saeculi XIII de S. Francisco Assiensi (Grottaferrata 1926) 92, taken from ANTON E. SCHöNBACH Beiträge zur Erkarung altdeutcher Dichtwerke, II SB Wien, Phil-hist. Kl. 145 (1903) 68. LEMMONS adds this comment: Boncompagni loquitur de tempore, que legislatio ordinis nondum erat terminata, et ante novitiatum die 20 septembris 1220 a Pontifice praescriptum.
2 For knowledge of the Friars Minor, Boncompagno might have drawn on his contacts with bishop Hugolinus, cardinal protector of the Order. Boncompagno could have also met Friars Minor at their house of studies at Bologna (domus S. Mariae de Puliola), on which see CAELESTIN PIANO O.F.M. ed. Chartularium Studii Bononiensi S. Francisci (saec. XIII-XVI) = Analecta Franciscana 11 (1970) 10-11. After Francis angrily repudiated this house, which had been established by Iohannes de Sciaca (Actus beati Francisci c. 61, nn. 1-3, ed. SABATIER 183f.) it was claimed as the property of Hugolinus, so that the Order might remain free from possessions (Thomas of Celano Vita secunda 58). However Francis himself gave permission for S. Antony of Padua to teach theology at this house in 1223-1224 (see the letter "fratri Antonio episcopo meo"). The house was moved to a more central location (near the Porta Stiera) in 1236.

5.20.9 De detractione, que fit contra eos.

[1] "Fratres Minores ex maiori parte sunt iuvenes vel pueri. Unde, si iuxta etatum suarum flexibilitatem sunt mutabiles et proclives, non est contra rerum naturam. Ipsi autem iam ad extremam dementiam pervenerunt, quia per civitates, oppida et loca solitaria sine discretione vagantur, horribilia et inhumana martyria tollerando."

5.20.10 Notula, qua doctrina datur, de suasionibus et dissuasionibus assumendi vel mutandi religionem.

[1] In cunctis generibus religionum valet fieri persuasio et dissuasio, quia non potest aliquod collegium inveniri, in quo non sit aliquid bonum, pro quo potest alicui suaderi, quod aliquis debeat illi collegio adherere; et in quo non sit aliquid malum, pro quo dissuaderi potest, ne aliquis ad religionem illam accedat, quoniam a lunari globo inferius nichil potest esse ex omni parte beatum. Et est istud quasi generale, quoniam monachi regularium canonicorum vitam reprehendunt, ex eo quod carnes manducant et lineis se vestiunt indumentis. Canonici autem dicunt, quod monachi animas et corpora perdunt et in illo religionis proposito magis illos detinet necessitas quam voluntas.

[2] Item dici potest contra monachos albos: 'Vos alba indumenta portatis, sed anime vestre invidia et fraude nigrescunt.' Vel: 'Habetis cucullas albas et animas nigras, quoniam albedo panni spiritum non immutat.'

[3] Item aliquod est collegium, quod habet habundantiam panis et vini, et aliquod non parvum sustinet defectum. Aliquod est, quod victualibus prehabundat, sed indumentis caret. Aliquod est, in quo sufficienter indumenta et victualia exhibentur, sed in corruptissimo est aere constitutum.

[4] Item fit suasio propter honestatem et religionem, et fit dissuasio propter vigilias et nimiam psalmodiam.

[5] Item fit suasio propter elemosinarum largitionem, et fit dissuasio propter avaritiam, discordias et conspirationes.

[6] Item suadetur ex benignitate prelati, et dissuadetur ex hypocrisi et tirannide prelati.

[7] Item fit suasio ex aere sano, et fit dissuasio ex locorum solitudinibus.

[8] Item fit suasio, quod viri sapientes plurimum honorantur, et fit dissuasio, quod odium et invidiam patiuntur.

[9] Item suasio fieri potest ex delectioned vivendi et ex iocunditate sociorum, et dissuasio fieri potest, quod egritudine superveniente velut canes morbosi ab omnibus reliquuntur.

[10] Item fieri potest suasio, quod numquam de claustro exire presumunt, et valet fieri dissuasio, quod numquam permittuntur in aliquo loco morari.

[11] Item valet fieri dissuasio ingressuris, quod nisi habuerint propria, de communibus nichil habere valebunt.

[12] Hec namque tibi suasionum et dissuasionum genera breviter prenotavi, ut notitiam inveniendi materias copiosius possis habere.


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© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998
Scrineum© Università di Pavia 1999