Boncompagnus 5.22 
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Incipits -- Siglorum conspectus

5.22 DE HERETICIS1

5.22.1 Littere, quas misi patriarche Aquilegensis2 contra hereticos.

Letter against heretics sent by Boncompagno to Wolfger, patriarch of Aquileia. Theological preamble (1§). Wolfger is warned of the ten heretical sects currently dwelling in six cities of his patriarchate (2§). Those who openly desist in opposing heresy consent to it ane are thus infected by it--as is the case with some great prelates of this patriarchate (3§). Boncompagno exhorts Wolfger to extirpate heresy, which also threatens the new university at Vicenza (4§). Wolfger should not allow his temporal responsibilities to hinder a spiritual care for his flock (5§). [Date: 1204-1209]

1 Heresy is also touched on in Boncompagnus prol. 3.10, 1.18.1, 1.22.3, 2.1.1, 2.1.3, 3.11.2, 3.15.1, 3.16.5-6, 3.16.16, 3.20.1, 3.20.43, 5.20.1, and below, 5.23.1, 6.2.26, 6.10.18.          2 Wolfger of Erla, patriarch of Aquileia (1204-1218). See also Boncompagnus 1.23.2, 3.14.5, 3.20.5, 5.1.7-8.

[1] "Cavernose arboris pomum, quo primus humani generis parens extitit Eva mediante deceptus, posteritatem nostram gustu consimili toxicavit.1 Unde ramusculi a vitiatis radicibus propagati vitiis carere non possunt,2 quare in originariam culpam relabimur et reflexibiliter protoplausti iaculis vulneramur. Et licet Dei et hominum Mediator3 per incarnationis misterium apposuerit primo vulneri medicinam et post gratiam ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto renatis viam per evangelia et apostolicas traditiones ostenderit ad patriam redeundi, quidam tamen antiqui serpentis persuasione seducti et litteram, que occidit,4 non spiritualem intelligentiam amplectentes, baptisma negant, carnis resurrectionem non credunt et ipsum demoniorum principem asserunt esse mundialis machine creatorem."

Aquilegensi: Aquileiensi Schönbach ed.         originariam: orriginariam MS       culpam tr. post relabimur Schönbach ed. protoplausti: prothoplausti P3          misterium: ministerium M          esse om. A
1 See Boncompagnus 1.25.11, 1.23.5 and 1.18.7.          2This epithet for Christ was coined in I Tim. 2.5, and theologically elaborated in Augustine Enarratio in Psalmum 29.2-3. Here it seems to be used of the office of a priest. Boncompagno uses it often: Tractatus virtutum §14; Oliva 37.2; Boncompagnus 2.1.2, 2.4.5, 5.22.1, 5.26.6. Boncompagnus 3.1.6, 5.23.1 and Rhetorica novissima 5.3.1 also apply it to the pope.   3 II Cor. 3.6.

[2] "Ecce, in patriarchatu vestro inimici crucis Christi consistunt, qui detestabiliores sunt quam barbare nationes vel Hebrei seu etiam ydolatre, qui adoraverunt sculptilia et mutaverunt gloriam suam in similitudinem vituli comedentis fenum.1 Ista siquidem sunt hereticorum genera, que infra patriarchalem diocesim diabolo instigante vigere noscuntur: Cathari, Patareni, Leoniste, Arnuldiste, Circumcisi, Rebaptizati, Passagini, Cavillarii, Nibbii, Speroniste.2 Sed Paterenorum secta congregat omnia genera piscium in sagena, et sedens iuxta litus erroris, bonos et malos reponit in vasis et idcirco diutius durat et fortius invalescit. Horum siquidem labe ac fetoribus Cume3 languescunt, Mantua sordidatur, Verona claudicat, Vincentia4 iam victa succumbit, Tarvisium torpet, sola Padua in publico se defendit."5

crucis om. P3         consistunt om. A        Hebrei: Hebrey A Ebrei MP3        adoraverunt: adhoraverunt M      mutaverunt: adoraverunt A         similitudinem MBB2P3: similitudine AS        hereticorum om. A       Arnuldiste: Arnaldiste A Arnoldiste Schönbach ed.         Nibii: Nilbii B2Tulbii A Tubbii Schönbach ed.        Paterenorum AB2MP3: Paterinorum ?? Patarinorum Schönbach ed.         secta: sexta A secca B2M          erroris: eroris M          vasis: heretice pravitatis add. A       et2 om. P3      Horum: Eorum Schönbach ed.         succumbit: subcumbit B2        Tarvisium SMP: iam add. P3Tervisium B Trevisium A Travisium B2
1 Psalm. 105.19-20, quoted also in Mirra 2.2.          2 A similar list is found in formulas for anathematization of heretics, e.g. Po. 8445 (Gregory IX, 20 August 1229) listing: Catharos, Paterinos, Pauperes de Lugduno, Arnaldistas, Speronistas, Passaginos. The list of heretics in Liber X 5.7.15 adds Iosepinos. Thus Boncompagno’s list omits two sects found in papal lists (Pauperes de Lugduno, Iosepinos), and includes five sects not not found on the papal lists (Leoniste, Circumcisi, Rebaptizati, Cavillarii, Nibbii). The first three are well-known sects, and Cavillarii is easily enough understood. Only Nibbii remains unexplained. For the terminology of heretical sects, see D. KURZE "Die festländischen Lollarden" Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 47 (1965) 68ff.        3 The suffragens of Aquileia not listed are Concordia, Treviso, Ceneda, Belluno, Feltre, Trient, Triest, Pedena, Pola, Parenza, Cittanova and Capodistria.             4 On heresy in Vincenza and Boncompagno’s pun, see Boncompagnus 1.23.3 and 3.15.1.         Perhaps Padua was singled out here for its success against heresy because of the activities of St. Antony (1193-1231). For discussion of this passage from the Boncompagnus and evidence of heresy in this area in the twelfth and early thirteenth century, see PAOLO MARANGON Il pensiero ereticale nella Marca Trevigniana e a Venezia dal 1200 al 1350 (Padua 1984) 9-14.

[3] "Ceterum, quod pudor est dicere, 'Ve, Ve', iam ipsa contagio misit manum non solum ad subditos, verum etiam ad magnos ecclesiarum prelatos, quia satis errant dum errori consentiunt et manifesto desinunt facinori obviare. Sic enim sanctitas incorrupta corrumpitur, Petri navicula naufragatur, aperitur archa federis, disperguntur lapides sanctuarii et iacent in capite omnium platearum.1 Nec est, qui pro liberatione populi exaltet vocem suam, sed pastores efficiuntur mercenarii et tamquam canes muti non valentes latrare stupescunt."2

Ve2 om. P3           prelatos: misit manum add. A           quia: qui P3         errori: error B2          archa: arca A carta S            lapides: ia~pades et A
1 Thren. 4.1.          2 Isai. 56.10.

[4] "Vos ergo, patriarcha, patrum princeps, ecclesie catholice cultor, assumite arma iusticie, scutum spiritualis protectionis, loricam fidei, galeam salutis,1 arcum increpationis et pharetram Scriptuarum, ut evellatis vepres, spinas et tribulos comburatis,2 radices hereticas extirpetis, que sicut gramen germinant3 et fidelium corda corrumpunt. Prestolatur siquidem adventum vestrum egregius ordo scolarium, qui de diversis mundi partibus causa studii Vincentie commorantur,4 verentes ne ipsorum aliqui minus videlicet intelligentes et flexibiles5 minus provide in heresim dilabantur. Profecto magni laboris est magnique discriminis, inter dubias imperitorum opiniones et verisimiles falsitates per viam rectam saneque doctrine semitam inoffensis gressibus ambulare."

loricam--salutis om. P3        Prestolatur: Postulantur B       qui A: que codd.     Vincentie: Vicentie SP Padue P3          minus--flexibiles om. SP3 per homoioteleuton                flexibiles: flebiles P
1 Eph. 6.13-17: armaturam Dei...loricam iustitiae...scutum fidei...galeam salutis assumite        2 II Reg. 23.6, Isai. 33.12 and Hebr. 6.8. Boncompagnus 1.3.7, 1.16.1, 4.5.3, 5.20.1.        3 Gen. 3.18, Hebr. 12.15.        4 This passage allows dating this letter to 1204-1209, when, following a migration from Bologna, a studium existed at Vicenza. Cf. Oliva 36.10.          5minus does not modify flexibiles. The term is an important one, because in Oliva 1.4 Boncompagno describes himself as partaking of the laicalis conditionis flexibilitatem. He clearly conceives of flexibility as a negative quality: feminea conditio sit flexiblis Boncompagnus 1.25.9, etas flexibilis et proclivis 5.20.1(cf. Cicero ad Brut. 1.18.4); etatum suarum flexibilitatem 5.20.9.

[5] "Non detineant vos igitur Foriiulii negotia temporalia,1 non census et redditus Sclavonie silvestris, sed refovete debiles, porrigite manum lapsis2 et propere succurrite gregi vobis commisso, qui sine ductore in Gelboe montibus perimitur et vagatur.3 Nec est, qui consoletur eum ex omnibus curis eius. Non sacrificetis cum Hely, qui licet sanctus fuerit, filios non correxit,4 sed transite Iordanem et hedificate altare Domino de lapidibus, quos ferrum heretice non tetigit pravitatis. Et ita beatissimum Hermacoram,5 cuius vice in patriarchatus cathedra faciente Domino residetis,6 dignis videbimini operibus imitari et fame vestre sonus latius diffundetur et favorabilius recipiet incrementum."

igitur vos tr. Schönbach ed.              Sclavonie: Sclavanie A           debiles: flebiles Schönbach ed.         Gelboe: Gebbone (gebbo~e) M     Iordanem MP3: Iordanen B2Iordanum codd.            Hermacoram SPB2M: Hermanum coram A Heremocoram B           faciente: favente Schönbach ed.             diffundetur: difundetur M
1Wolfger received confirmation of the duchy of Friaul from Otto IV in January 1209 (Acta imperii ed. E. WINKELMANN 1.14-15 no. 23).         2 Sir. 7.36.         3 II Reg. 31.1, I Par. 10.1; Ier. 50.6.             4 I Reg. 3.13.         5 Hermagoras  (+ ca. 66 A.D.), first bishop of Aquileia. See Boncompagnus 5.10.5.         6  Cf. Oliva 17.3-4.

5.22.2 Littere patriarche contra illos prelatos et clericos, qui hereticis consentire videntur.

Wolfger, patriarch of Aquileia, sends a letter of admonishment and correction to all those prelates and clerics in his patriarchate who seem to consent to heretics. The preamble describes heresy with scatalogical comparisons (1§). Some bishops and prelates in the patriarchate are consenting to heretics, thus reversing the proper ecclesiastic order (2§). These sons of the Church have become bastards (3§). Wolfger orders them to not consent to heresy but rather to oppose it with the Word of God. Should they not, he will persuade the pope to punish them with perpetual degradation from ecclesiastical office and life imprisonment at La Cava (4§). [Date: 1204-1209]

[1] "Fecis et putredinis dolium aperuit fama vulgaris, de quo progressus est odor mortis in mortem.1 Unde prosiliit letifere contagionis exemplum, quod infinitorum animos labefactat."

aperuit: apperuit S apparuit A           letifere: letiffere B
1 II Cor. 2.16.

[2] "Nam per diversas partes orbis terrarum est non sine causa probabili divulgatum, quod infra patriarchalem diocesim aliquot episcopi et ecclesiarum prelati hereticis consentire videntur et in contemptu ecclesiastici ordinis eis prebere dicuntur favorem. Unde aurum Christi iam in scoriam est conversum1 et ab hereticis conculcatur, quare plangimus cum Ieremia, dicentes 'O vos omnes, qui transitis per viam, attendite et videte dolorem nostrum, si est dolor similis nostro dolori.' 2 Ecce, boves, qui predicationis vomere agrum Domini sulcare deberent, ut asine pascerentur iuxta illas et ipse aratrum3 Sacre Scripture contra religionem Christianam transvertunt, ponunt sibi iugum in cauda et asinas ordine retrogrado imitantur."4

est non sine: non est sine tr. S      diocesim: dyocesim B      aliquot Bac: aliquod codd. P3      predicationis: predicatoris B2       deberent: deberet P3        cauda: caudam B2      ordine om. A
1 Isai. 1.22.          2 Threni 2.12.         3 Iob 1.14.             4 III Reg. 19.21.

[3] "De his namque dicit Scriptura: 'Filios enutrivi et exaltavi, illi autem spreverunt me.'1 Isti sunt filii et non filii, quoniam erraverunt ab utero sacrosancte matris ecclesie et locuti sunt falsa. Unde qui erant legitimi, facti sunt filii alieni, quia mentiti sunt michi, inveterati sunt et a semita vere fidei claudicarunt. Isti sunt pastores, qui grege Domini derelicto in solicitudinem properarunt, ut pascant porcos heretice pravitatis."2

his: hiis M          enutrivi et: enutrivit P                    porcos: pastores S
1 Psal 17.46. Cf. also Decretales Gregorii IX 4.17.          2 Matt 8.30-32.

[4] "Eapropter, sub interminatione anathematis, sub ultione divini iudicii et pena degradationis vobis precipiendo mandamus, ut nullus vestrum audeat alicui heresi consentire aut cum aliquibus hereticis vel eorum fautoribus conversari. Sed pugnare contra eos debeatis gladio Spiritus, quod est verbum Dei,1 ut infamia, que de vobis penes plurimos inolevit, penitus evanescat. Alioquin ad ultionem vestram summum pontificem taliter inducemus, quod vos perpetuo ab omni officio degradabit et apud Sanctam Trinitatem de Cava recludet,2 ubi cum depositis et condempnatis usque ad consumationem vite permanebitis degradati."

pugnare: pungnare B           debeatis gladio: debeatis in margine B2           Cava: Clava AP3
1 Eph. 6.17. See Boncompagnus 5.20.2.          2 The monastery of the Trinity at La Cava (near Salerno), where several deposed anti-popes had been imprisoned after their submissions. See Boncompagnus 2.3.8, HUBERT HOUBEN Medioevo monastico merdionale (Naples 1987) and PLACIDO LUGANO L’Italia benedettina: Montecassino, Subiaco, Badia di Cava, Camaldoli, Vallombrosa, Montevergine, Montefano, I Cisterciensi in Italia, Monteoliveto, L’Isola di San Lazzaro a Venezia (Rome 1929).

5.22.3 Reprehenditur iurisperitus, qui detrahit ymagini, que Luce a Christicolis veneratur.1

1 ed. SCHONBACH "Beiträge zur Erklärung altdeutscher Dichtwerke II" SB Wien phil.-hist. Kl. 145 (1903), IX, 88f. Reprinted in GUSTAV SCHNüRER Sankt Kümmernis und Volto Santo (Düsseldorf 1934) 163-4. For a good current bibliography on the medieval criticism of relics, see WERNER MALECZEK Petrus Capuanus. Kardinal, Legat am Vierten Kreuzzug, Theologe (+1214) (Vienna 1988) 10-50. See also literature on icons and iconoclasm.

For the medieval critique of relics: K. GUTH Guibert von Nogent und die hochmittelalterliche Kritic an der Reliquienverehrung (Ottobeuron 1970); PATRICK GEARY Furta Sacra (Princeton 1978); N. HERMANN-MASCARD Les reliques des Saints. Formation coutumiere d'un droit (Paris 1975); K. SCHREINER "Discrimen veri et falsi. Ansätze und Formen der Kritik in der Heiligen- und Reliquienverehrung des Mittelalters" Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 48 (1966) 1-53; K. SCHREINER "Zum Wahrheitsverständnis im Heiligen- und Reliquienwesen des Mittelalters" Saeculum 17 (1966) 131-169; R. KROOS "Vom Umgang mit Reliquien" in Ornamenta Ecclesiae III. Katalog der Ausstellung, ed. A. LEGNER (Cologne 1985) 25-49.

[1] "Iuris ignarus potius quam iurisperitus deberes merito appellari, quoniam contra sanctiones iuris iuri detrahere presumis, non considerans quid sit contra hereticos et eorum fautores in lege sancitum.1 Nam legale ius corrumpis, dum ipsum Deum, qui iuris est actor, offendere in verbo presumis, non attendens quod propter hoc teipsum reddis infamem et exemplum tribuis minus providis malignandi."

1 See Codex Justinianus 1.5 De hereticis et manichaeis et samaritis.         2         3             4          5

[2] "Ecce, sanctam et venerabilem ymaginem crucifixi, que in ecclesia Lucensi a gentibus et populis veneratur,1 asseris de ligno retorto fuisse, quod faber lignarius arte sua2 pollivit, rescindens prius ab eo ligna cum ascia et securi, que igni patuerunt et in favillam et cinerem sunt conversa.3 Residua vero pars ligni fuit ingenioso sculptori commmissa, qui subtili dolatura et artificio membra in ipsa distinxit, infigens ei oculos in capite cristallinos et in pedibus argenteos subtellares. Postmodum vero cum varietate colorum totam substantiam deauravit, superimponens capiti eius coronam lapidibus preciosis insertam et lumbos exquisita zona precinxit."4

1 CLARA BARACCHINI and MARIA TERESA FILIERI Il Volto Santo. Storia e culto. Catalogo della Mostra (Lucca 1982); PIETRO LAZZARINI Il volto Santo di Lucca, 782-1982 (Lucca 1982); Lucca, il Volto Santo e la civilta medioevale: Atti (Lucca 1984); GIULIANO AGRESTI Volto Santo (Lucca 1989).          2 Leobin legend: Nichodemus...sacratissimum vultum non sua, sed divina arte desculpsit. (SCHNüRER ed. 128.22).         3 As SCHNüRER points out (163, n. 4), this detail appears to have been provided to voice criticism of the wood-chips (astulae) mentioned at the end of the Leobin legend, which were offered as relics in Lucca: Addebant etiam predicti sancti viri, quod de asstulis et particulis preciosi vultus, que, dum sculperetur, residue fuerant, et dum asportatus fuisset illic remanserant, si partem debilitati aut infirmi corporis tangerant, pristinam incolumitatem sine ulla tarditate reformabant, ita ut, si oculus, pes vel manus aut aliquod ceterorum membrorum lesum fuisset, eiusdem sanctissimi membri particula tangeretur et sanaretur ipso adiuvante, qui vivit et regnat in unitate spiritus sancti Deus per omnia secula seculorum. Amen. (Schnürer ed. 132-3).       4 GEZA DE FRANCOVICH "Il Volto Santo di Lucca" Bollettino Storico Lucchese 8 (1936) 3-28, advanced the (now generally held) thesis that the present Volto Santo (II) is an early thirteenth century copy of the Volto Santo I. The now lost original, originally created in the eleventh or the eighth century, suggested dates of the Leobin legend (ed. SCHNüRER 127-134, SCHWARZMEIER 338ff. argues forcefully for an eleventh century date), which first documented the Luccan sculpture. In any case Volto Santo I was replaced by II in the early years of the thirteenth century by a sculptor working in the environment of the school of Benedetto Antelami. FRANKOVICH 19, suggests that Boncompagno's letter displays in a guarded fashion its author's doubts about the Luccan sculpture. FRANCOVICH sees in this contemporary evidence of the substitution of Volto Santo I by Volto Santo II.

[3] "Dicis etiam, quod recoloratur per singulos annos ad hoc, quod pulcrior videatur. Et infra substantiam ligneam predicas esse formicas,1 dicens quod miracula illa, que de re ymagine sunt scripta, esse mendaciis fallerata et per cupiditatem acquirendi reperta. Nec fuisse verum neque consimile veritati, quod argenteum substellarem proiecerit ystrioni, qui ante ipsam tangebat cytaram in dulcore.2 Super quibus errare secundum quorundam opinionem videris, quia multi credunt et fama per orbem terrarum exivit, quod linea, qua ymago illa precingitur, gaudium parturienti conferat mulieri."3

1 FRANCOVICH 19 notes this is a reference to the decayed state of the Volto Santo I.          2 The Spielmannswunder is edited in GUSTAV SCHNüRER Sankt Kümmernis und Volto Santo (Düsseldorf 1934) 159-160. This is a reprint of the original edition by WENDELIN FöRSTER "Le Saint Vou de Luques" Romanische Forschungen 23 (1906) 53. --- The Leobin legend (SCHNüRER ed. 133) itself attacks the slur that "non humane lingue fallacia argumenta, sed rerum gestarum evidentissima documenta" demonstrate the divine origins of the sculpture.        3 See Boncompagnus 5.20.2.65 (note 23).

[4] "Et licet dixerit Placentinus, quod stulti nummos ibi ponebant,1 non debes Placentinum super talibus imitari,2 sed placeat tibi credere, quod imago illa non est Deus, sed ad illius honorem formata. Unde ipsam habere debes in reverentia et honore, sicut sigillum, quod Cesaris ymaginem representat, non est Cesar, et tamen auree vel ceree forme reverentia exhibetur et imperialis maiestas forma intermedia3 veneratur plurimum et timetur."4

1 XXXXX         2 SCHNüRER failed to recognize here the famous Bolognese legist. "Placentinus dürfte hier den Sinn von plaisantin, plaisant = Spassmacher haben; darauf weist insbesonder das Wortspiel mit dem nachfolgenden 'placeat'" (SCHNüRER ed. 164). More recent discussions of this passage have not questioned whether Placentinus' writings or glosses make reference to the Volto Santo, nor has any effort been made to more precisely identify the recipient of Boncompagnus 5.22.3, since SCHNüRER suggested he was a jurist at the university of Bologna. Look at Placentinus Summa super Codicem. For Boncompagno's approval of Placentinus in another context, see ROBERT BENSON "Libertas in Italy (1152-1226" in La notion de liberte au Moyen Age Islam, Byzance, Occident ed. GEORGE MAKDISI (Paris 1985) 191-213 at 203.         3 Cf. Oliva 9 passim, and the reading of MS C at 19.26. Seals are also discussed in Oliva cc. 18, 34, 35, 36, 42, 44, 56, 60 and Boncompagnus 1.23.12-13, 3.13.17, 3.17.7, 3.18.2, 3.19.20, 5.1.2, 5.4.4, 5.8.12, 6.6.11-12, 6.8.3, 6.8.10, 6.12.1, 6.12.3, 6.14.2-3.
 
A = Athens, Bibl. Nat. (Bibliotheke tes Hellados) 2907, saec. XIII; Boncompagnus 1r-126v, f. 103v
Berlin = Berlin, SPKB lat. fol. 509, saec. XV;                                      Boncompagnus f. 148v-149r
Bern = Bern, Burgerbibliothek 322, saec. XIII;                                   Boncompagnus 74r-134v, f. 104rb
M = Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm. 23499, saec. XIII;  Boncompagnus 1r-58r, f. 48va
P = Paris, BN lat. 7732, saec. XIII;                                                         Boncompagnus 1r-65v
S = Siena, Bibl. Com. G IX 31, saec. XIII;                                             Boncompagnus 1r-79r
V= Vatican City, BAV, Archivio di S. Pietro H13, saec. XIII;             Boncompagnus 1r-159r
X = Paris, BN lat. 8654, saec. XIII;                                                         Boncompagnus 1-100


Schnürer = ed. Schönbach "Beiträge zur Erklärung altdeutscher Dichtwerke II" SB Wien phil.-hist. Kl. 145 (1903), IX, 88f. Reprinted in Gustav Schnürer Sankt Kümmernis und Volto Santo (Düsseldorf 1934) 163-4.

5.22.4 Notula doctrinalis de huiusmodi materiis inveniendis.

[1] Contra hereticos et errores infinite possent materie reperiri. Nam Greci dicunt Spiritum Sanctum a solo Patre procedere, sumentes auctoritatem evangelii, qua dicitur "Spiritus paracletus, qui a Patre procedit,"1 et pro eo quod Latini dicunt, quod a Filio et Patre procedit, heretici apud eos habentur. 1 Io. 15.26

[2] Item sacrificant de pane fermentato, dicentes quod corpus Christi fuit in sepulchro triduo in nostre mortalitatis fermento, quod nos errorem sine dubio reputamus.

[3] Item secundum nos errant in matrimoniis et in plurimis, que non sunt per singula referenda.

[4] Item sunt apud nos quamplures, qui dicunt Deum non esse aliquid, secundum quod est homo, quorum errorem Alexander tertius reprobavit.1

1 JW 11806, 11809: "pravam doctrinam, quam adhuc quidam teneant et predicent, quod Christus secundum quod sit homo non sit aliquid, penitus abrogare curent, et Christum sicut perfectum Deum sic et perfectum ac verum hominem ex anima et corpore secundum quod homo consistentem tenendum et predicandum precipiant".

[5] Item sunt alii, qui dicunt, quod anima nichil sit, antequam infundatur corpori nec postquam a corpore separatur. Et alii sunt, qui dicunt, quod postquam a corpore separatur, non est anima, sed nichil deperit ex ea, quia remanet essentialis forma. Alii sunt, qui firmiter asseverant, quod anima bruti animalis perpetuatur per successivam carnis propagationem, sicut anima hominis.

[6] Et suum de Salomonis dictis fovent errorem, qui dixit: 'Nichil habet homo iumento amplius,' et idem: 'Est interitus hominis et iumentorum.'1 Et alibi dicit: Omnia 'renovantur et deiciuntur, sic generatio carnis et sanguinis nascitur et finitur.'2

1Eccl. 3.19         2 Sir. 14.19

[7] Alii sunt, qui dicunt, quod postquam anima separatur a corpore unius, ingreditur corpus alterius, et ista circuitio numquam habebit finem.

[8] Item alii sunt, qui dicunt, quod mundus iste principium non habuit nec habebit finem, et ita sensibilis cum dispositione horum planetarum absque fine durabit. [9] Non credunt etiam, Adam fuisse primo plasmatum nec a primordiali materia fuisse umquam elementa distincta.

[10] Item Cumani dicunt tot esse deos quot rerum genera.1 Unde quodcumque animal prius in mane sibi occurrit, ad honorem illius dei adorant. Etsi ad negotia sua fortunatam invenerint horam, dicunt 'Magnus est Deus hyrcorum' vel 'caprarum' seu 'asinorum' vel 'muscarum' aut 'serpentum', secundum quod alicuius generis animal sibi occurrit. Verumtamen firmiter credunt quod unus sit Deus, qui diis omnibus dominetur, et apud eos 'Tancredus' vocatur.2

1 For literature on polytheism in medieval eastern Europe: J. BANASZKIEWICZ "Polytheistische Religionen, Slavische Bereich" LMA 80-81.          2 XXXX
 
A = Athens, Bibl. Nat. (Bibliotheke tes Hellados) 2907, saec. XIII; Boncompagnus 1r-126v, f. 103v-104r
Berlin = Berlin, SPKB lat. fol. 509, saec. XV;                                       Boncompagnus f. 149r-149v
Bern = Bern, Burgerbibliothek 322, saec. XIII;                                   Boncompagnus 74r-134v, f. 104rb-104va
M = Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm. 23499, saec. XIII; Boncompagnus 1r-58r, f. 48va-48vb
P = Paris, BN lat. 7732, saec. XIII;                                                         Boncompagnus 1r-65v, f.
S = Siena, Bibl. Com. G IX 31, saec. XIII;                                             Boncompagnus 1r-79r, f.
V = Vatican City, BAV, Archivio di S. Pietro H13, saec. XIII;            Boncompagnus 1r-159r, f.
X = Paris, BN lat. 8654, saec. XIII;                                                         Boncompagnus 1-100, f.


Schönbach ed = Beiträge 62-64


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© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998
Scrineum © Università di Pavia 1999