Isagoge 1 
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[1.] INCIPIVNT SALVTATIONES DOMINI PAPE.

[1.1] Quia igitur dominus papa est primus|[58rb] et pater omnium Christianorum,1 ab ipso est primum in omnibus summendum initium. Et sic per ordinem de gradu procedamus in gradum.2

[1.2] Sic enim salutat dominus papa universos Christi fideles: premittit nomen suum, cuicumque scribit, et archiepiscopos, patriarchas et episcopos, cardinales3 vocat 'venerabiles fratres', ceteros autem 'dilectos filios'.

[1.3] Sic enim salutat episcopum: "Innocentius4 episcopus <servus> servorum Dei, venerabili fratri episcopo .A., salutem et apostolicam benedictionem."

[1.4] Si vero scribit duobus, quorum unus sit episcopus5 et alius canonicus, sic dicet: "Innocentius episcopus servus servorum Dei, dilectis filiis [.V.]6 abbati sancti Petri Villemagni,7 [.B.]8 presbyteri sancti Petri de Vineis9 et .B.10 canonico Anagnino, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem."

[1.5] Omnes episcopi, archiepiscopi, patriarche, abbates et omnes ecclesiarum prelati cunctique Christi fideles sic possunt salutare dominum papam: "Sanctissimo patri et domino .I. Dei gratia sacrosancte ac universalis ecclesie summo pontifici, .P.11 Signinus episcopus licet indignus, obedientiam et reverentiam tam debitam quam devotam" vel "promptam et debitam in omnibus reverentiam."

[1.6] Vel sic: "Clementissimo patri et domino .I. Dei gratia summo et universali pontifici, .A.12 Ferentinas episcopus licet immeritus, promptum et debitum in omnibus famulatum."

[1.7] Vel sic: "Reverentissimo patri et domino .I. Dei gratia sacrosancte ac universalis ecclesie summo pontifici, .P. Signine ecclesie humilis minister se ipsum totum in omni genere subiectionis."

[1.8] Vel sic: "Amantissimo patri et domino .I. Dei gratia sacrosancte ac universalis ecclesie summo pontifici, .O.13 miseratione divina Verulanus episcopus tam promptam quam debitam in omnibus reverentiam." Vel sic: "Piissimo patri et domino."

[1.9] Consules civitatum, castrorum, villarum et burgorum sic possunt salutare dominum papam:|[58va] "Piissimo patri etc., consules populusque Signini, promptum famulatum cum plenitudine servitii" vel "se ipsos ad pedes" vel "sacrorum pedum osculum."

[1.10] Cardinales autem, licent principes Urbis et orbis, premittunt tamen nomen episcoporum, comitum, catthaneorum et baronum, quando scribunt eis.

[1.11] Episcopus Hostiensis sic salutat aliquem episcopum: "Venerabili in Christo fratri .P.14 Dei gratia Signino episcopo, .U.15 eadem gratia Hostiensis episcopus, salutem in vero salutati."

[1.12] Diaconus cardinalis sic salutat episcopum: "Venerabili in Christo fratri .I.16 Dei gratia Anagnino episcopo, .G.17 permissione divina sancti Georgii ad Velum Aureum diaconus cardinalis, salutem in eo, in quod est nostra salus."

[1.13] Presbyter cardinalis sic: "Venerabili in Christo fratri .A. Dei gratia Ferentinati episcopo, .P.18 miseratione divina tituli sancte Pudentiane presbyter cardinalis, salutem in eo, sine quo non est vera salus et oratio fructuosa."

.A. legi: .O. V           .P. legi: .F. V

[1.14] Si vero duo cardinales, quorum unus sit presbyter et alius diaconus, scripserit, sic dicet: "Venerabili in Christo fratri .H.19 Dei gratia Verolano episcopo, .S.20 tituli sancte Presedis presbyter et [.G.]21 sancti Adriani diaconus cardinalis, salutem et orationem in Domino." Et nota, quod omnes presbyter cardinales dicuntur 'tituli sancte' talis nomina sancte, unde est cardinalis.

[1.15] Et nota, quod predictas salutationes potest mittere unicuique viro religioso, mutatis que mutanda sunt convenienter.

[1.16] Item nota, quod unusquisque cardinalis episcopus, magnus abbas et etiam magni comites specialem habent salutationem.22 Unde semper dictamen23 de salutatione inquirere debes.

[1.17] Patriarche et archiepiscopi, quotiens scribunt suffrageneis suis, se in salutatione premittunt|[58vb] et episcopos vocant 'venerabiles fratres', ceteros autem 'dilectos filios' de patriarchata vel archiepiscopatu.

[1.18] Patriarcha sic salutat suffraganeum: ".H.24 Dei gratia Ierosolimitanus patriarcha apostolice sedis legatus, venerabili fratri .S.25 Cesariensi archiepiscopo, salutem et benedictionem."

[1.19] Metropolitanus sic salutat vel potest salutare suffraganeum suum: ".H.26 Dei gratia sancte Ravennatis ecclesie archiepiscopo, venerabili fratri .G.27 Bononie episcopo, salutem."

[1.20] Sunt etiam quidam patriarche et archiepiscopi, qui sunt apostolice sedis legati, quod debet in salutatione poni, ut archiepiscopus sancti Iacobi et patriarcha Ierosolimitanus. ".H.28 Dei gratia Grandensis patriarcha et totius Dalmatie atque Croatie primas, dilecte filio Innocentio nobilissimo, salutem in Domino."

[1.21] Suffraganeus sic potest salutare suum metropolitanum: "Venerabili patri et domino .H. Dei gratia sancte Ravennatis ecclesie archiepiscopo dignissime, .I.29 permissione divine Faventinus episcopus licet indignus, promptam et debitam in omnibus reverentiam."

[1.22] Unus episcopus alium sic salutat vel potest salutare: debet premittere nomen illius, si parvum etiam habeat episcopatum, quia pares sunt in dignitate et in nullo ei subest. Si vero sit maioris etatis ille, cui scribit, potest illum appellare 'venerabilem fratrem': "Venerabili in Christo fratri .B.30 Dei gratia Ferentinati episcopo, .I. eadem gratia Anagninus episcopus, salutem et orationum obsequia."

[1.23] Quidem tamen dicunt 'permissione divina licet indignus', quidem 'miseratione divina licet immeritus', quidam 'divina favente gratia', quidam enim ad hostendendam humilitatem dicunt:|[59ra] 'Signine ecclesie humilis minister'. Si enim dicit 'Dei gratia', non debet dicere postea 'licet indignus', quia quod gratia Dei sit, dignum est, iuxta illum apostoli "Gratia Dei sum id, quod sum, et gratia Dei in me vacua non fuit,"31 sed multa permittit Deus, que digna non sunt.

[1.24] Episcopus sic potest salutare unumquemque clericum de suo episcopatu, sive sit prelatus sive subditus, debet premittere nomen suum et vocare illum 'dilectum filium'. Sed quidam premittunt nomina prelatorum et vocant eos 'venerabiles fratres'. Sed magis hoc faciunt causa lucri quam causa hostendende humilitatis: ".I. Dei gratia Anagninus episcopus, dilecto filio .H. abbati sancti Salvatoris,32 salutem et orationem in Domino" vel "salutem et orationum obsequia" vel "salutem et prosperos ad vota successus" vel "salutem et prosperis successibus habundare."

[1.25] Unusquisque clericus sic potest suum episcopum salutare: "Venerabili patri et domino .P. Dei gratia Signino episcopo, .G. eius humilis clericus, promptam et debitam in omnibus reverentiam." Vel sic: "Reverendo patri et domino .I.33 Dei gratia Ferentinati episcopo, .H. omnium suorum clericorum minimus, quicquid devotionis et reverentie potest" vel "suus per omnia subditus et devotus" vel "se ipsum totum in omni genere devotionis."

[1.26] Et nota, quod non debes ponere hoc nomen 'salutem', non ideo quod non possis facere de iure, quia servus posset optare salutem domino suo, sed quia reputaretur arrogans.

[1.27] Et nota, quod has salutationes minor maiori mittere potest, mutatis que mutanda sunt convenienter.

[1.28] Monachi autem et viri religiosi humilitatem imitantur. Unde sic aliquis abbas episcopum vel aliquem alium potest salutare:|[59rb] "Venerabili patri et domino .I. Dei gratia Anagnino episcopo, .V.34 peccator monachus sancti Petri de Villamagna et abbas licet indignus, salutem cum omnimoda reverentia" vel "salutem cum omnimoda devotione" vel "salutem cum omnimoda subiectione."

[1.29] Unde clericus sic potest alium salutare. Si fuerit clericus magister ecclesie, debet dicere sic 'Dei gratia': "Prudenti et discreto viro moribus et honestate prefulgido .I. Dei gratia canonico Anagnino, .G. Signinus canonicus, salutem cum prosperitatis augmento."

[1.30] Si vero amicus eius, sic dicit: "Viro venerabili et amico licet modo presbytero .B.35 priori sancti Petri de Vineis, .C. humilis clericus sancti Stephani36 de Signia, salutem in Domino et sincere dilectionis affectum."

[1.31] Imperator sic potest salutare aliquem regem, comitem, ducem, marchionem et unumquemque suum fidelem, debet premittere nomen suum, cuicumque scribit, nisi quando scribit domino pape vel alicui regi, qui non sit vasallus eius. Sic salutat regem Ungarie: "Illustrissimo viro .H. Dei gratia regi Ungarie,37 .P.38 eadem gratia imperator Romanorum et semper augustus, salutem et omne bonum." Vel: ".P. Dei gratia Romanorum imperator et semper augustus, illustri viro .B.39 Bononie duci salutem et suam gratiam."

[1.32] Consules civitatum sic salutat: "Petrus40 Dei gratia Romanorum imperator et semper augustus, dilectis fidelibus consulibus Signinis, salutem et suam gratiam."

[1.33] Comites, duces, marchiones, magni barones et consules civitatum sic possunt salutare imperatorem: "Serenissimo viro .P. Dei gratia Romanorum imperatori et semper augusto, .I. comes Soranus,41 obsequium fidelitatis cum promptitudine servitii." Vel sic: "Invictissimo domino .P. Dei gratia Romanorum imperator et semper augusto, .B.42 dux Spoleti suus per omnia fidelis, se ipsum totum in omni genere fidelitatis cum|[59va] promptitudine servitii." Vel sic: "Excellentissimo viro .P. Dei gratia imperatori Romanorum et semper augusto, .B.43 marchio de Monte Ferrato, promptum famulatum cum obsequio fidelitatis." Vel sic: "Triumphatori et invicto domino .P. Dei gratia imperatori Romanorum et semper augusto, consules Signini promptum et debitum in omnibus famulatum" vel "gloriam et honorem in longitudinem dierum."

[1.34] Unus rex alium sic potest salutare, premittit nomen suum, si est vasallus eius, cui scribit: "Francus Dei gratia rex Francie, .P. illustri regi Anglie, salutem et omne bonum." "Illustrissimo viro .P.44 Dei gratia regi Francie, .H.45 eadem gratia rex Sicilie salutem cum augmento prosperitatis."

[1.35] Rex ita salutat unumquemque suum vassalum, premittit nomen suum et dicit sic: "Leo46 Dei gratia <rex> Ungarie, dilecto fideli suo .H., salutem et suam gratiam."

[1.36] Comites, duces, marchiones sic se ad invicem salutant; quidam comites sunt, qui dicuntur 'comites palatini': "Nobilissimo viro domino .R. Dei gratia comiti Fundano,47 .I. Frangipani48 eadem gratia Romanorum consul et sacri palatii Laterani comes, salutem cum sincere dilectionis constantia."

[1.37] Et nota, quod omnes nobiles Romani vocant se 'consules Romanorum',49 sed ille, qui sunt de nobilissima gente Frangipani,50 vocant se 'consules Romanorum et comites palatii Laterani' in salutatione.51 "Magnifico et inlustri viro .I.52 Dei gratia comiti palatino, .A. de Ulignano,53 salutem cum dilectionis augmento." Si fuerit amicus eius, dicet 'amico karissimo', quidam vero dicunt 'imperialis aule comes', quidam 'Dei et imperiali gratia comes': "Strenuissimo viro .C. Dei gratia Astensi54 marchioni, .H. Dei et imperiali gratia dux, salutem." Et nota, quod unusquisque, sive sit vasallus eorum sive non, ita potest salutare predictos, mutatis|[59vb] que mutanda sunt convenienter.

[1.38] Romanus senator premittit nomen suum, quando scribit fidelibus Romane diocesis sic: "Cihonis Leonis Ranierii55 Dei gratia alme Urbis illustris senator, dilectis fidelibus et amicis consulibus Signinis, salutem."

[1.39] Consules civitatum, castrorum, villarum et burgorum sic salutant senatorem: "Strenuissimo viro domino .C. Leonis Rainierii Dei gratia alme Urbis illustri senatori, consules Signini promptum famulatum cum plenitudine servitii."

[1.40] Una potest sic potestas aliam salutare: "Nobili et strenuo viro domino .A.56 Bononie potestati, .G.57 Faventinorum potestas, salutem cum sincere dilectionis constantia." Non debet dicere 'Dei gratia', quia potestas terrena non est multum duratura, et debet ponere prenomen,58 si habet. "Nobili et egregrio viro domino .A.59 vicecomiti Mutinensium, potestati, consilariis et honorabili eiusdem civitati populo, .D.60 Bononie potestas, consiliarii cum universo populo, salutem cum perpetue pacis perseverentia." Si fuerit magnus populus, dicet 'magnifico populo'.

[1.41] Consules civitatum, castrorum, villarum et burgorum sic se ad invicem salutant, debent premittere nomina recipientium, nisi castrum vel villa vel burgus pertineant ad mittentium iurisdictionem. Si vero unus consul, debet scribi nomen illius integre: "Nobilibus viris consulibus Anagninis et honorabili eius democratatis populo, .P. Theobaldi consul et universus populus Signinus, salutem et perpetue pacis constantiam, vel salutem et prosperis successibus habundare, vel salutem et sincerum amorem."

[1.42] Unus miles sic salutat alium: "Nobili et eggregrio viro .P. de|[60ra] Sacco61 militari gloria prefulgido, .R. de Paliano,62 salutem et sincere dilectionis affectum." "Nobilissimo domino .R. de Palliano strenuo militi, .T. de Monte Fortino,63 salutem cum vinculo sincere dilectionis."

[1.43] Si fuerit amicus eius, dicet 'amico karissimo'. Si vero fuerit consanguineus, 'consanguineo preelecto'.

[1.44] Unus amicus alium sic debet salutare: "Pio karissimo amico .B., .A., salutem cum vinculo sincere dilectionis." "Intimo et precordiali amico .G. de Gurga,64 .A. eius intimus amicus, salutem cum sincere dilectionis fervore." "Amicorum precipuo .B., .H. eius amicus salutem et sincere dilectionis affectum" vel "salutem quam sibi" vel "salutem et quicquid ipse sibi."

[1.45] Filius sic salutare debet patrem et matrem, premittit nomina parentum, quicumque sit, nisi esset summus pontifex: "Reverendis parentibus .A. et .B. pre cunctis mortalibus diligendis, .H. omnium suorum minimus, salutem cum filiali subiectione."

[1.46] Patrem salutat sic: "Reverendo genitori .B., .H. eius unicus filius, salutem et filialem subiectionem."

[1.47] Matrem sic: "Reverende genitrici .M. plurimum metuende, .A. eius filius, salutem cum reverentia et devotione."

[1.48] Frater sic salutat fratrem: "Dilectissimo fratri .A., .B. eius frater, salutem cum fraternali dilectione."

[1.49] Si fuerint duo, sic: ".A. et .B. fratribus peramandis, .H. eorum frater, salutem et fraternalem dilectionem."

[1.50] Si quis vellet salutare patrem et matrem, fratres et sorores, consanguineos,|[60rb] amicos et vicinos, sic dicet: Reverendis parentibus ".A. et .B., fratribus peramandis .G. et .P., sororibus dilectissimis .M. et .D., universis consanguineis, amicis et vicinis, .H. eorum filius frater, consanguineus, amicus et vicinus, salutem cum filiali subiectione et sincere dilectionis affectum."

[1.51] Pater et mater sic salutant filium, premittant nomen suum, quicumque sit filius, nisi esset summus pontifex vel archiepiscopus vel magnus abbas, et non debent eum vocare 'patrem venerabilem'. Verumtamen vocare possent, si vellent, quia maior est paternitas spiritualis quam carnalis:65 ".A. et .B. parentes, suo dilecto filio .H., salutem et paternam benedictionem."

[1.52] Pater sic: ".R. genitor, dilecto filio .S., salutem et benedictionem paternam."

[1.53] Mater sic: ".F. genitrix, dilecto filio .B., salutem et maternam benedictionem."

[1.54] Eodem modo possunt salutare filiam, mutando masculino in femininum et positivo in superlativum.66 Eodem modo cognatus potest salutare cognatum, mutatis que mutanda sunt convenienter.

[1.55] Maritus sic potest salutare uxorem, debet premittere nomen suum, nisi ea esset orta nobilioribus se: ".B. de Matino,67 sue dilecte uxori .A., salutem cum vinculo dilectionis."

[1.56] Si vero dilexerit eam multam, sic dicet: "Dilectissime uxori sue anime dimidio .A., .B., salutem cum indissolubili vinculo sincere dilectionis" vel "salutem quam sibi" vel "salutem et quicquid ipse sibi" vel "salutem et quicquid melius potest excogitari."

[1.57] Uxor sic salutat virum suum, premittit nomen sui viri, quecumque sit, si etiam nobilior eo esset, quia gloria et corona mulieris maritus est: "Nobili viro .B., .M. eius fidelissima|[60va] uxor, salutem et quicquid melius potest" vel "salutem in omni genere subiectionis" vel "salutem et fidele obsequium."

[1.58] Amicus sic salutat amasiam suam: "Dilectissime amasie sue oculorum lumini, sue anime dimidio domine .M., forma et morum elegantia decorate, .S. suus famulus, salutem et quicquid in orbe potest pulcrius inveniri."

[1.59] Vel sic: "Dulcissime amasie sue .B. venustatis glorie redimite, .M. suus per omnia famulatus et fidelis, salutem et quicquid potest dulcius inveniri" vel "salutem et quicquid in orbe melius."

[1.60] Si vero sit talis mulier, propter quam possint inimicitie oriri, non scribas nomen amice, ne forte carta perveniat ad manus alicuius emuli et sic amor cecus vertatur in odium mortale, sed scribe aliquod signum <Õ> loco proprii nomini, sicut memini me iam fecisse, quod si non fecissem, quidem meus socius mortis periculum incurrisset.68

[1.61] Vidimus salutationes, quas unusquisque, cuiuscumque sit conditionis vel ordinis, alteri mittere potest. Nunc videamus salutationes, quas unaqueque mulier alteri mittere potest. Quia igitur mulieres multum appetunt laudes et nulla est adeo turpis, que non affectet laudari, ideo superlativis utaris et ad ipsius commendationes multum insistas.

[1.62] Imperatrix sic salutat reginam Anglie: "Pretiosissime domine .M.69 Dei gratia regine Anglie, .C.70 eadem gratia Romanorum imperatrix et semper augusta, salutem et omne bonum" vel "salutem et semper optatis perfrui."

[1.63] Una comitissa aliam sic salutat: "Pretiosissime mulieri comitisse .M. forma et morum elegantia decorate, illustris comitis .G. uxoris, comitissa .R. uxor comitis Ildebrandini,71 salutem et vinculum indissolubile amoris."|[60vb]

[1.64] Regina Anglie sic salutat imperatricem: "Serenissime ac pretiosissime mulieri .C. Dei gratia imperatrici et semper auguste, .M. regina Anglie, salutem." Predictas salutationes una regina alii mittere potest.

[1.65] Una domina sic salutat aliam: "Nobilissime mulieri domine forma et moribus redimite .M. uxori domini .I., .H. uxor .P. de Sacco, salutem et pure dilectionis affectum." Si non habuit virum, dicet: ".M. quondam uxor .P. de Sacco."

[1.66] Una abbatissa sic aliam salutat: "Venerabili in Christo sorori domine .M. Dei gratia sancte Marie de Viano72 abbatisse dignissime, .F. peccatrix monacha sancte Marie de Cannis73 abbatissa, salutem in vero Salutari."


1 Quinque tabule salutationum 1.2

2 For a comparison of the hierarchical principles of the Isagoge, the Quinque tabule salutationum (elaborated in the prologue to the Decem tabule salutationum) and the Oliva, see STEVEN WIGHT Repertorium of Boncompagno's artes dictaminis (forthcoming).

3 This list violates the hierarchical principle of premitte maiora, as does below, Isagoge 1.5.

4 Innocent III, pope (1198-1216).

5 No bishop is named in the following example, which is adressed to three clerics, not two.

6 See below, Isagoge 1.28. According to Boncompagno's doctrine in Notule auree 8, persons names should be indicated in salutations at the very least by their initials.

7 S. Pietro de Villamagna (dioc. Anagni). See PAUL KEHR, Italia Pontifica 2.140-142. For rights of the bishop of Anagni over this abbey, see IP 2.138-9 no. 15 (ed. PFLUGK-HARTTUNG Acta 3.207 no. 199). See Po. 1977-8 (6.8.1203, PL 215.140) in which the abbot of Villamagna is called Berengario.

8 See below, Isagoge 1.30.

9 The church of S. Pietro de Vineis is located 1 km. northwest of Anagni. See the map in GIULIO BATTELLI ed., Rationes decimarum. Latium Studi e testi 128 (Rome 1946). --- For the connection between this church and the foundation of S. Chiara, fostered by cardinal Hugolinus, see FILIPPO CARAFFA Il monastero di S. Chiara in Anagni (Anagni 1985) 48-50.  See also A. BIANCHI "Affreschi medievali in S. Pietro in Vineis in Anagni" in Roma anno 1300 Atti della IV settimana di studi di storia dell'arte medievale dell'Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza' ed. A. M. ROMANINI (Rome 1983) 379-384.

10 I have not seen ALESSANDRO Istoria della citta e S. basilica cattedrale d'Anagni (Rome 1749). See below, Isagoge 1.29.

11 Petrus, bishop of Segni (1179-12.1206). See below, Isagoge 1.7, 1.11, 1.25. At Isagoge 2.23 Boncompagno seems to critize the bishop of Segni: "....Signinus episcopus licet indignus." Et hoc credo, quod accidat veri...

12 Albertus Longus, bishop of Ferentino (22.6.1203-1209). See above, Isagoge 1.3, and below, Isagoge 1.13. For papal letters to bishop Albertus, cf. Po. 1928, 3983. He was a canon of Anagni, consecrated by Innocent III on 31 May 1203, see Chron. Fossae Novae (MURATORI Scr. 7.686) Ann. Ceccan MGH SS 19.296

13 Oddo II, bishop of Veroli (1190-1212). See below, Isagoge 1.14, 2.28.

14 Petrus, bishop of Segni (1179-12.1206). See above Isagoge 1.5, 1.7 and below, 1.25.

15 Ugolinus, cardinal bishop of Ostia and Velletri (8.6.1206-19.3.1227).

16 Johannes III, bishop of Anagni (1197-1220). See below, Isagoge 1.22, 1.24, 1.28.

17 Gregorius Cecarello, cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro (23.10-1190-30.5.1211)

18 Petrus de Sasso, cardinal priest of S. Pudenziana (22.6.1206-31.5.1219).

19 ie. <H>oddo II. See above, Isagoge 1.8, below 2.28. For aspiration of proper nouns beginning with vowels, see Boncompagnus 1.2.5, (see also 1.2.16-17).

20 Soffredus, cardinal priest of S. Prassede (5.3.1193-14.12.1210), patriarch of Jerusalem (1202-1204).

21 Gerardus, cardinal deacon of S. Adriano (2.1.1183-20.7.1208).

22 This presupposes a situation where a dictator met a lord by chance, for whom he composed a letter, and to whom he was unfamiliar. For such an instance, see Quinque tabule salutationum 4.9-10. --- That a dictator will practice a largely itinerant career is largely presupposed in Boncompagno's writings, and his own life witnesses this. In addition, many prelates excercized their offices in transit: popes, emperors, kings, cardinal legates, and lesser lords in the company of their suzerains.

23 'Dictamen' seems to be here nearly synonymous with protocol.

24 Haymar Monachus, patriarch of Jerusalem (1194-1202). He was archbishop of Caesarea 1182-1197, holding both offices for three years.

25 Bartholomeus, archbishop of Caesarea (1198); Petrus, archbishop of Caesarea (1199-1236). See RUDOLF HIESTAND and HANS EBERHARD MAYER "Die Nachfolge des Patriarchen Monachus von Jerusalem" Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde 74 (1974) 109-130.

26Hubaldus, archbishop of Ravenna (21.12.1208-1215). See below, Isagoge 1.21. For the title of the see of Ravenna, see Oliva 8b.15, 10.4, 10.8, 10.10-11, 18.32-33, 38.1-11. For earlier archbishops of the thirteenth century (Aegidius, Albertus), see Po. 1327, 1546.

27 Gerardus Ariosti, bishop of Bologna (1198-1213, deposed). See Oliva 49.1.

28 Angelus Barozzi (1207-1238), patriarch of Grado. According to Boncompagnus 1.2.5, proper names beginning with vowels should be aspirated. Patriarch Benedictus (1201-120?) is another possibility, since an initial 'b.' could easily have been misread by the rubricator who wrote the enlarged capital H. On Benedict, see Po. 1475-1476, 1565. Po. 2394 (PL 215.509, 28 Jan 1205) orders bishop Huguccio of Ferrara visit Venice and inquire concerning the consecrating of patriarch-elect Iohannes of Grado. --- For the primatial title of the patriarch of Grado, see Quinque tabule salutationum 1.7, 4.7, Oliva 18.4 and ALFRED FELBINGER "Die Primatialprivilegien für Italien von Gregor VII bis Innocenz III (Pisa, Grado und Salerno)" ZRG Kan. Abt. 37 (1951) 95-163 at 134-157.

29 Joachim, bishop of Faenza (1208-10.2.1209). See Po. 3649. Joachim replaced Hubaldo, who was transferred to the archiepiscopal see of Ravenna.

30 Bernardus, bishop of Ferentino (1191-22.1.1202). For other bishops of Ferentino see above, Isagoge 1.6, 1.13 and below, 1.25.

31 I Cor. 15.10.

32 A church of S. Salvatore is located 5 km. south of Anagni.

33 Although the manuscript clearly has I., perhaps this initial should be emended to A., for Albertus Longus (22.6.1203-1209), or B., for Bernardus (1191-22.1.1203). See above, Isagoge 1.6, 1.13, and 1.22.

34 For the monastery of S. Pietro of Villamagna, see FILIPPO CARAFFA Monasticon Italiae vol. 1 (Rome 1981). See above, Isagoge 1.4. --- During the Roman Republic, Villamagna was an estate of Pompey.

35 See above, Isagoge 1.4.

36 See GIULIO BATTELLI ed., Rationes decimarum. Latium Studi e testi 128 (Rome 1946); CHRISTOPH HENNIG Latium, das Land um Rom (Cologne 1989); PIERRE TOUBERT Les Structures du Latium medievale 2 vol., Bibliotheque des Ecoles francaises d'Athenes e de Rome 221 (Rome 1973).

37 Haimerich, king of Hungary (1196-1204). The manuscript reading 'Agnie' might be explained as a miixture of 'Ungarie' ('of Hungary') and 'Anglie' ('of England'), perhaps by scribal error, or as the author's attempt to create a fictional kingdom. For another case of the commingling of two widely separate lands into one kingdom, see Oliva 52.4 (Denmark and Greece). --- There are several obviously fictional addressees in Isagoge 1.31-32. --- 'Angaria' (Enger, in Westfalen) does not apply, because it was part of a duchy, not a kingdom. See GERHARD KALLEN "Das Kölner Erzstift und der 'ducatus Westfalie et Angarie' (1180)" Jahrbuch der Kölner Geschichtsverein 31-32 (1956-57) 78-107.

38 Philipp of Swabia, emperor (1197-1207). See also below, Isagoge 1.33. But also see Isagoge 1.32, where the emperor is called 'Petrus'!

39 Lordship over Bologna was transferred from dukes to counts in the ninth century. The last mention of a count of Bologna is 1139: ALFRED HESSEL Geschichte der Stadt Bologna von 1116 bis 1280 (Berlin 1910) 13, 47.

40 The completion of the the archtype's presumed emperor 'P.' (see also Isagoge 1.31) as 'Petrus' serves to undercut Philip of Suabia's claim to the imperial title. For more echos of the German Thronstreit in Boncompagno's previous writings, see Oliva 19.2, 52.1. There have been no Roman emperors named Peter, for an obvious reason, at least since Constantine's adoption of Christianity as the official religion of the empire. --- Only one ruler in Constantinople carried this name: Pierre de Courtenay, count of Auxerre, emperor of the Latin realm of Constantinople 1217-1219; he was a minor under the regency of Conone of Bethune, and he died in prison.

41 Sora, episcopal see east of Veroli, in Campania. See M. MACCARRONE "La famiglia d'Aquino e la politica territoriale di Innocenzo III ai confini della Campania papale" in IDEM Studi su Innocenzo III Italia Sacra 17 (Padua 1972) 167-219. Innocent III's brother Richard was the count of Sora.

42 After Konrad of Urslingen formally renounced in 1198 his duchy to the papal legates Octavian bishop of Ostia and Gerald deacon of S. Adrian, this title was vacant, and the duchy was ruled by the papal rector, Gregorius de Crescentio, cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro. Note that several dukes of Spoleto bore the name Boniface. T. GASPARRINI LEPORACE "Cronologia dei duchi di Spoleto (569-1230)" Bollettino della R. deputazione di storia patria per l'Umbria 35 (1938) 5ff. Recent bibliography in ALDO BRUNACCI and GIUSEPPE CATANZARO edd. Magister Rufinus De bono pacis.

43 Boniface, marquis of Monferrato (1192-1207).

44 Philipp Augustus, king of France (1179-1223).

45 Henry VI, king of Sicily (1194-1197), emperor (1191-1197).

46 Ladislao, king of Hungary (1204-1205).

47 Richard III dell'Aquila, count of Fondi (1186-1212). This salutation concerns Richard's role in mediating between the comune of Terracina and the Frangipani family (Po. 2784, PL 215.891, Po. 3473, PL 215.1449; PL 217.301; MGH Leges 2.223). Cf. Gesta Innocentii III, c. 40 (PL 214.lxxiii-lxxx). For Richard dell'Aquila, see OTHMAR HAGENEDER and ANTON HAIDACHER edd. Die Register Innocenz III 1.814 notes 2 and 3 (letter 1.558) and B. AMANTE and R. BIANCHI Memorie storiche e statutarie del ducato, della contea e dell'episcopato di Fondi in Campania dalle origini fino ai tempi piu remoti (Rome 1903).

48 Iacobus Frangipani, head of that branch of the Frangipani family located in the Turris Chartularia, from which location he directed attacks on the Annibaldi in 1204: Gesta Innocentii III c. 139 (PL 214.cxcii; see also 6.206). On the Turris Chartularia: Oliva 19.13 and AINO KATERMAA OTTELA Le casetorri medievali in Roma Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 67 (Helsinki 1981) 60-61; for the tower's connections with the papal archives: F. EHRLE S.J. "Die Frangipanen und der Untergang des Archivs und der Bibliothek der Päpste am Anfang des 13. Jahrhunderts" Melanges offerts a M. Emile Chatelain (Paris 1910) 448-484.

49 PAOLO BREZZI Roma e l'impero medioevale 774-1252 Storia di Roma 10 (Bologna 1947) 301.

50 For the important noble Roman family of the Frangipani, see MATHIAS THUMSER "Die Frangipane" QFIAB 71 (1991) 106-163, and IDEM Lexikon des Mittelalters 4.688-689. For a speech made by another member of the Frangipane family, Altruda, countess of Brettinoro, see De obsidione Ancone (ZIMOLA ed.) 42-44, also at 28, 31, 38, 39.

51 On the Frangipane title 'comes palatini Lateranenses': PHILIPPE LAUER Le Palais de Latran (Paris 1911) 191. See also Boncompagnus 6.10.2, Epistola mandativa ad comites palatinos §9-§12. Oliva 1.3 takes as its subtext the Lateran palace, with special reference to the Sancta Sanctorum.

52 Ildebrandino Aldobrandeschi, count palatine of Tuscany (1225?). See Oliva 54.3 and GASPERO CIACCI Gli Aldobrandeschi nella storia e nella "Divina commedia" (Rome 1980).

53 Ulignano (dioc. Volterra, modern dioc. Colle d'Elsa) is located 7 km. northwest of Poggibonsi, on the left bank of the Elsa river. The abbey Monicchio lay one km. to the southeast; also near by were strongholds of both the Contalberti and the Guidi, rivals of the Aldebrandeschi in Tuscany. (Another Ulignano is located 15 km. to the southwest, between Volterra and S. Gimignano.)

54 Besides the marquis of Monferrat, the marquesses of Busca, of Ceva, and of Incisa also held lands near Asti; the latter two had palaces in the city.

55 Gregorius Pierleone Raynerii was appointed senator by Innocent III April 1204 reappointed in November. The Roman commune opposed to him a government of Buoni Uomini. In November 1204-April 1205 the pope added another 56 senators. Giovanni di Leone was senator in 1207. FRANCO BARTOLINI ed. Codice diplomatico del Senato Romano dal MCXLIV al MCCCXLVII 1. Fonte per la storia d'Italia 87 (Rome 1948) and PAOLO BREZZI Roma e l'impero medioevale 774-1252 Storia di Roma 10 (Bologna 1947); PIETRO GASPARRINI Senatori romani della prima meta del XIII secolo finora ignorati (Rome 1938).

56 Not identified.

57 Gerardinus Rolandini was podesta of Faenza in 1206. See Registrum Innocentii III 9.18 (Po. 2709, PL 215.819, date: 10.3.1206) and Tolosani Chronicon c.128

58 For the prenomen see also Isagoge 2.7. For the development of Italian family names, see AUGUSTO GAUDENZI "Sulla storia del cognome a Bologna nel secolo XIII" Bullettino dell'Istituto Storico Italiano 19 (1898) 1-163.

59 Not identified. I have not seen E. VICINI I podesta di Modena I. (Modena 1913) and GIROLAMO TIRABOSCHI (1731-1794) Memorie storiche modenesi col codice diplomatico (Modena 1793) 3 vols. Innocent III addressed a letter to an unnamed podesta of Modena in Reg. 7.41 (PL 215.323 = Po. 1446).

60 More likely, this letter should be read as 'B.' ------- ALFRED HESSEL Geschichte der Stadt Bologna. For a letter concerning the election of a podesta of Bologna, see Boncompagnus 6.10.12.

61 Sacco is located 8 km northwest of Segni, on the left bank of the Sacco river, which runs through the dioceses of Segni, Anagni, Ferentino and Veroli, bisecting the Ciociaria region of southern Latium. See below, Isagoge 1.65, 2.12.

62 The pieve of Paliano is located 10 km northwest of Anagni, in the diocese of Palestrina. See VINCENZO CELLETTI I Colonna, principi di Paliano (Milan 1960).

63 The pieve of Montefortino (Artena) is located 10 km. northwest of Segni. See IP 2.132 no.4, (ed. PL 201.1158) and ATTILIO CADDERI Artena (gia Montefortino) dalle origini alla fine del secolo XIX (Rome 1973) 50-51. Montefortino is explicitly mentioned as pertaining to the Roman church in the testament of Henry VI.

64 The pieve of Gorga is located 11 km. south of Anagni, midway between Segni and Ferentino.

65 Cf. Epistola mandativa ad comites palatinos note 7.

66 See below, Isagoge 1.61.

67 Matino is a city in Apulia. See ALDO DE BERNART Una fondazione bizantina nel basso salento Santa Anastasia a Matino (Galatina 1990). There is a Marino on the north shore of lake Albano.

68 See below, Isagoge 2.6.

69 This initial could stand generally for the queens of England under William the Conqueror, Henry I and Stephan, all named Mathilda, as were Henry II's mother and his daugher, who married duke Henry the Lion of Saxony.

70 Constance, empress (1190-1198) and wife of emperor Henry VI. Another possibility would be Frederick II's first wife Constance of Aragon, except that she became empress in 1220.

71 See above, Isagoge 1.37.

72 S. Maria di Viano is located 9 km. south of Anagni.

73 Not identified.

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© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998

Scrineum © Università di Pavia 1999