Isagoge 1
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[1.1] Because the lord pope is the first and father of all Christians,1 every beginning must take its origin first from him, and thus we may procede in order, step by step.2

[1.2] For when the lord pope adresses all Christians he places his own name before that to whom he writes and he calls archbishops, patriarchs and bishops, cardinals3 'venerable brother', others he calls 'beloved sons'.

[1.3] He addresses a bishop as follows: <1> "Innocent4 bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the venerable brother, bishop A., greetings and apostolic benediction."

[1.4] If he should write to two, one of whom is a bishop5 and the other a canon, he will say:<2> "Innocent bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the beloved sons [V.]6 abbot of S. Petrus de Villamagna,7 [B.]8 priest of S. Petrus de Vineis9 and B.10 canon of Anagni, greetings and apostolic benediction."

[1.5] All bishops, archbishops, patriarchs, abbots and all prelates of churches and all the faithful of Christ can thus greet the lord pope: <3> "To the most holy father and lord I. by the grace of God high pontiff of the most sacrosanct and universal church, P.11 bishop of Segni, albeit unworthy, obediance and reverence as much deserved as devoted" or "prompt and deserved reverence in all things."

[1.6] Or thus: <4> "To the most clement father and lord I. by the grace of God high and unversal pontiff, A.12 bishop of Ferentino, albeit unworthy, prompt and deserved servitude in all things."

[1.7] Or thus: <5> "To the most reverend father and lord I., by the grace of God high pontiff of the sacrosanct and universal church, P. humble servant of the church of Segni, his whole self in every sort of subjection."

[1.8] Or thus: <6> "The most beloved father and lord I. by the grace of God high pontiff of the sacrosanct and universal church, O.13 by divine mercy bishop of Veroli, as much prompt as deserved reverence in all things." Or thus: "To the most pious father and lord..."

[1.9] The counsels of cities, of castles, villages and burgs can thus address the lord pope: <7> "To the most pious father etc., the counsels and people of Segni, prompt servitude with a plentitude of service" or "themselves at his feet" or "a kiss of the sacred feet."

[1.10] Cardinals, although princes of the City and the world, still place first the names of bishops, counts, catthanei, and barons, when they write to them.

[1.11] The bishop of Ostia thus addresses another bishop: <8> "To venerable brother in Christ P.14 by the grace of God bishop of Segni, U.15 by the same grace bishop of Ostia, greetings in true salvation."

[1.12] A cardinal deacon adresses a bishop so: <9> "To venerable brother in Christ I.16 by the grace of God bishop of Anagni, G.17 by divine permissioni cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro, greetings in He, in whom is our salvation."

[1.13] A cardinal priest adresses thus: <10> "To venerable brother in Christ A. by the grace of God bishop of Ferentino, P.18 by the divine mercy cardinal priest of the title of S. Pudenziana, greetings in He, without Whom there is no true salvation and fruitful prayer."

[1.14] If indeed he has inscribed two cardinals, one of whom is a presbyter and the other a deacon, so he will say: <11> "To venerable brother in Christ H.19 by the grace of God bishop of Veroli, S.20 cardinal priest of the title of S. Prassede and [G.]21 cardinal deacon of S. Adriano, greetings and prayer in the Lord." And note that all cardinal priests are called 'of the title of saint' the name of whichever saint from which he is a cardinal.

[1.15] And note that he can send the above salutations to any monk, appropiately changing those things which should be changed.

[1.16] Note that every cardinal bishop, great bishop and even great counts have a special salutation,22 whence you should always inquire of the dictamen23 concerning a salutation.

[1.17] Patriarchs and archbishops, whenever they write to their suffragens, put themselves first in the salutation and call bishops 'venerable brothers', but others from their patriarchate or archdiocese 'beloved sons'.

[1.18] A patriarch addresses his suffragen as follows: <12> "H.24 by the grace of God patriarch of Jerusalem and legate of the apostolic see, to the venerable brother S.25 archbishop of Caesarea, greetings and benediction."

[1.19] A metropolitan addresses or can address his suffragen thus: <13> "H.26 by the grace of God archbishop of the holy church of Ravenna, to the venerable G.27 bishop of Bologna, greetings."

[1.20] There are also some patriarchs and archbishops, who are legates of the apostolic see, which should be placed in a salutation, such as the archbishop of Santiago and the patriarch of Jerusalem. <14> "H.28 by the grace of God patriarch of Grado and primate of all Dalmatia and Croatia, to the beloved most noble son Innocent, greetings in the Lord."

[1.21] A suffragan can thus address his metropolitan: <15> "To the venerable father and lord H. by the grace of God most worthy archbishop of the holy church of Ravenna, I.29 by divine permission bishop of Faenza, although unworthy, prompt and deserved reverence in all things."

[1.22] One bishop addresses or can address another thus, he should place first the other's name, even if he might have a small bishopric, because they are peers in office and one is not subject to the other. Indeed if a bishop to whom he writes is of greater age than him, he can call that bishop 'venerable brother': <16> "To the venerable brother in Christ B.30 by the grace of God bishop of Ferentino, I. by the same grace bishop of Anagni, greetings and submission of prayers."

[1.23] Yet some say 'by divine permission, albeit unworthy', some 'by divine mercy, albeit unworthy', some 'by divine grace favoring', some in fact say to show humility: 'humble servant of the church of Segni'. But if he says 'by the grace of God' he should not afterwards say 'albeit unworthy', because that which would be by the grace of God is worthy, according to the word of apostle Paul "I am by the grace of God what I am, and the grace of God was not void in me",31 but God permits many things which are not worthy.

[1.24] A bishop can thus address any cleric from his diocese, whether he be prelate or subject, he ought to put his own name first and call that one 'beloved son'. But some place the names of prelates first and call them 'venerable brothers'. But they do this more for the sake of monetary gain than for the sake of showing humility: <17> "I. by the grace of God bishop of Anagni, to the beloved son H. abbot of S. Salvatore,32 greeting and prayer in the Lord" or "greeting and the servitude of prayers" or "greeting and prosperous successes to your vows" or "greetings and abound with prosperous successes."

[1.25] Each cleric can thus address his own bishop: <18> "To the venerable father and lord P. by the grace of God bishop of Segni, G. his humble cleric, prompt and deserved revererence in all things." Or thus: <19> "To the reverend father and lord I.33 by the grace of God bishop of Ferentino, H. least of all his clerics, whatever he can of devotion and reverence" or "his devoted subject in all things" or "his whole self in all manner of devotion."

[1.26] And note that you should not use this word 'salutem', not because you thereby cannot rightfully do this, because a servant can wish 'salutem' for his lord, but rather because it would be reputed as arrogant.

[1.27] And note that a lesser person can send these salutations to a greater person, properly changing those things which should be changed.

[1.28] However monks and other religious men follow humility, whence any abbot can address a bishop or anyone else in this way: <20> "To the venerable father and lord I. by the grace of God bishop of Anagni, the sinner V.,34 monk of S. Petrus de Villamagna and abbot, albeit unworthy, greeting with all manner of reverence" or "greeting with all manner of devotion" or "greeting with all manner of subjection."

[1.29] Whence a cleric can thus address another cleric. If he had been a master of a church, he should thus say 'by the grace of God': <21> "To the prudent and discreet knight, splendid in morals and honesty, I. by the grace of God canon of Anagni, G. canon of Segni, greeting with augmentation of prosperity."

[1.30] If he is a friend, he says: <22> "To the venerable knight and friend, although now a priest, B.35 prior of S. Petrus de Vineis, C. humble cleric of S. Stephan36 of Segni, greeting in the Lord and sincere affection of love."

[1.31] The emperor can thus address any king, count, duke, marquis and any of his faithful subjects; he should place his own name first, to whomever he writes, unless when he writes to the lord pope or to any king who is not his vassal. Thus he addresses the king of Anglo-Hungary: <23> "To the most illustrious son H. by the grace of God king of Englary,37 P.38 by the same grace emperor of the Romans and always august, greeting and all good." Or: <24> "P. by the grace of God emperor of the Romans and always august, to the illustrious knight B.39 duke of Bologna, greeting and his grace."

[1.32] Thus he addresses consuls of cities: <25> "Peter40 by the grace of God emperor of the Romans and always august, to the beloved faithful consuls of Segni, greeting and his grace."

[1.33] Counts, dukes, marquises, great barons and consuls of cities can thus address the emperor: <26> "To the most serene knight P. by the grace of God emperor of the Romans and always august, I. count of Sora,41 servitude of fealty with promptness of service." Or thus: <27> "To the unconquerable lord P. by the grace of God emperor of the Romans and always august, B.42 duke of Spoleto, his subject faithful in all things, his own self in every sort of fealty with promptitude of service." Or thus: <28> "To the most excellent knight P. by the grace of God emperor of the Romans and always august, B.43 marquis of Monferrato, prompt service with the obediance of fealty." Or thus: <29> "To the triumphant and unconquered lord P. by the grace of God emperor of the Romans and always august, consuls of Segni, prompt and deserved service in all things" or "glory and honor in the length of days."

[1.34] One king can address another king thus, he puts his own name first, if the king to whom he writes is his vassal: <30> "Francus by the grace of God king of France, to P. illustrious king of England, greeting and all good." <31> "To the most illustrious knight P.44 by the grace of God king of France, H.45 by the same grace king of Sicily, greeting with an augmentation of prosperity."

[1.35] A king addresses any of his vassals thus, he puts his own name first and says: <32> "Leo46 by the grace of God <king> of Hungary, to his beloved subject H., greeting and his grace.'

[1.36] Counts, dukes and marquises thus address each other; there are some counts who are called 'counts palatine': <33> "To most noble knight lord R. by the grace of God count of Finidano,47 I. Frangipani48 by the same grace consul of the Romans and count of the sacred Lateran palace, greetings with sincere constancy of love."

[1.37] And note that all the Roman nobles call themselves 'consuls of the Romans',49 but those who are of the most noble Frangipani50 family call themselves in a salutation 'consuls of the Romans and 'counts of the Lateran palace'.51 <34> "To the magnificent and illustrious knight I.52 by the grace of God count palatine, A. de Ulignano,53 greeting with an augment of love." If <the addressed person> had been his friend, he will say 'to the dearest friend', some indeed say 'count of the imperial court', others 'count by the grace of God and by imperial grace': <35> "To the most strenuous knight C. by the grace of God marquis of Asti,54 H. by the grace of God and by imperial grace duke, greeting." And note that anyone, whether he be their vassal or not, can in this way address the aforesaid, properly changing those things which should be changed.

[1.38] A Roman senator places his own name first when he writes to faithful citizens of the Roman diocese, thus: <36> "Cihonis Leonis Ranierii55 by the grace of God illustris senator of the mother City, to beloved faithful and friends, consuls of Segni, greeting."

[1.39] The consuls of cities, of castles, of villages and of burgs address a senator as follows: <37> "To the most strenuous knight lord C. Leonis Ranierii by the grace of God illustrious senator of the mother City, the consuls of Segni, prompt servitude with a plenitude of service."

[1.40] One podesta can address another as follows: <38> "To the noble and strenous knight lord A.56 podesta of Bologna, G.57 podesta of Faenza, greeting with sincere constancy of love." I should not say 'by the grace of God', because earthly power is not of great duration and if he has a prenomen,58 he should use that. <39> "To the noble and excellent knight, lord A.59 vicount of Modena, to the podesta, to the counsellors and to the honorable people of that city, D.60 podesta of Bologna and counsellors with the whole people, greeting with perpetual perseverance of peace." If it were a great people, he will say 'to the magnificent people'.

[1.41] The consuls of cities, castles, villages and burgs address each other as follows. They should put the recipients' names first, unless the castle or village or burg pertains to the jurisdiction of the senders. If there is only one consul, his whole name should be written out: <40> "To the noble counsels of Anagni and to the honorable people of its democracy, P. Theobaldi consul and the whole people of Segni, greetings and constancy of perpetual peace" or "greetings and abound in prosperous successes" or "greetings and sincere love."

[1.42] One knight addresses another as follows: <41> "To the noble and excellent knight P. de Sacco,61 shining with military glory, R. de Paliano,62 greeting and sincere affection of love." <42> "To the most noble lord R. de Paliano, strenous knight, T. de Monfortino,63 greeting with a bond of sincere love."

[1.43] If <the addressed person> was his friend, he will say 'most dear friend'. If indeed <the addressed person> were a blood relative, 'most choice blood relative'.

[1.44] One friend should address another as follows: <43> "To the most dear pious friend B., A., greeting with a bond of sincere love." <44> "To the intimate and close friend G. de Gurga,64 A. his intimate friend, greeting with the fervor of sincere love." <45> "To the most special of friends B., his friend H., greeting with a bond of sincere love."

[1.45] A son should thus address <his> father and mother, he puts the parents' names first, whosoever he may be, unless he is the highest pontiff: <46> "To the revered parents A. and B. beloved before all mortals, H. least of all their <children>, greeting with filial subjection."

[1.46] He adresses <his> father thus: <47> "To the revered progenitor B., H. his only son, greeting and filial subjection."

[1.47] A mother thus: <48> "To the revered progenitrix M. much feared, A. her son, greeting with reverence and devotion."

[1.48] A brother addresses brother thus: <49> "To the most beloved brother A., B. his brother, greeting and fraternal love."

[1.49] If there had been two, as follows: <50> "A. and B. beloved brothers, H. their brother, greeting and fraternal love."

[1.50] If anyone should wish to address father and mother, brothers and sisters, relatives, friends and neighbors, he will say: <51> "To the reverend parents A. and B., beloved brothers G. and P., beloved sisters M. and D., to all relatives, H. their son, brother, relative, friend and neighbor, greeting with filial subjection et affection of sincere love."

[1.51] A father and mother thus address a son, they place their own name first, whomever the son may be, unless he be the highest pontiff or an archbishop or a great abbot, and they should not call him 'venerable father'. Nevertheless thy could call him <that>, if they wished, because spiritual paternity is greater than carnal paternity:65 <52> "A. and B. parents, to their beloved son H., greeting and paternal blessing."

[1.52] A father thus: <53> "R. progenitor, to the beloved son S., greeting and paternal blessing."

[1.53] A mother thus: <54> "F. progenitrix, to the beloved son B., greeting and maternal blessing."

[1.54] They can address a daughter in the same manner, changing masculine to feminine, and positive to superlative.66 In the same manner one can address a relative, appropriately changing those things which should be changed.

[1.55] A husband can thus address a wife, he should place his own name first, unless she comes from more noble stock than he: <55> "B. of Matino,67 to his beloved wife A., greeting with the bond of love."

[1.56] If indeed he much loves her, he will say as follows:<56> "To the most beloved wife and soulmate A., B., greeting with an indissoluble bond of sincere love" or "greeting which to himself" or "greeting and whatever he himself" or "greeting and whatever can be best thought."

[1.57] A wife may thus address her husband, she places the name of her husband first, whomever she may be, even if she may be more noble than he, because the glory and crown of a wife is her husband: <57> "To the nobleman B., M. his most faithful wife, greeting and whatever she can do better" or "greeting in all manner of subjection" or "greeting and faithful service."

[1.58] A man may salute his lover as follows: <58> "To beloved lover, light of his eyes, half of his soul, lady M., decorated by elegance of beauty and morals, S. her servant, greeting and whatever more beautiful in the world could be found."

[1.59] Or thus: <59> "To his sweetest lover B. crowned with the glory of modesty, M. her trusty servant in all things, greeting and whatever more sweet could be found" or "greeting and whatever in the world is better."

[1.60] If indeed she is such a woman, on whose account emnities could arise, you should not write out her name, lest perchance the letter should come into the hands of some rival and so blind love would be converted into mortal hatred, but write down some sign <Õ> in place of a proper name, just as I remember that I did once, which if I had not done, one of my students would have incurred peril of death.68

[1.61] We have seen the salutations which anyone can send to another, of whatever condition and order he may be. Now let us see the salutations which each woman may send to another. Because thus women much desire praises and there is none thereby so foul that she does not affect to be praised; on that account you should use superlatives and apply yourself much to commendations of her.

[1.62] Thus may an empress address the queen of England: <60> "To the most precious lady M.69 by the grace of God queen of England, C.70 by the same grace empress of the Romans and always augusta, greeting and all good" or "greeting and always enjoy <your> desires."

[1.63] One countess may address another, as follows: <61> "To the most precious woman countess M. decorated by elegance of form and of morals, wife of the illustrious count G., countess R., wife of count Ildebrand,71 greeting and a bond of indissoluble love."

[1.64] The queen of Angland addresses the empress, as follows: <62> "To the most serene and most precious woman C. by the grace of God empress and always augusta, M. queen of England, greeting..." One queen can send the aforesaid salutations to another.

[1.65] One lady addresses another, as follows: <63> "To the most noble woman lady M., crowned by beauty and morals, wife of lord I., H. wife of P. de Sacco, greeting and affection of pure love."

[1.66] One abbess salutes another, as follows: <64> "To the venerable sister in Christ, lady. M. by the grace of God most worthy abbess of S. Maria de Viano,72 F. sinner, nun, and abbess of S. Maria de Cannis,73 greeting and be saved in the truth."

1 Quinque tabule salutationum 1.2

2 For a comparison of the hierarchical principles of the Isagoge, the Quinque tabule salutationum (elaborated in the prologue to the Decem tabule salutationum) and the Oliva, see STEVEN WIGHT Repertorium of Boncompagno's artes dictaminis (forthcoming).

3 This list violates the hierarchical principle of premitte maiora, as does below, Isagoge 1.5.

4 Innocent III, pope (1198-1216).

5 No bishop is named in the following example, which is adressed to three clerics, not two.

6 See below, Isagoge 1.28. According to Boncompagno's doctrine in Notule auree 8, persons names should be indicated in salutations at the very least by their initials.

7 S. Pietro de Villamagna (dioc. Anagni). See PAUL KEHR, Italia Pontifica 2.140-142. For rights of the bishop of Anagni over this abbey, see IP 2.138-9 no. 15 (ed. PFLUGK-HARTTUNG Acta 3.207 no. 199). See Po. 1977-8 (6.8.1203, PL 215.140) in which the abbot of Villamagna is called Berengario.

8 See below, Isagoge 1.30.

9 The church of S. Pietro de Vineis is located 1 km. northwest of Anagni. See the map in GIULIO BATTELLI ed., Rationes decimarum. Latium Studi e testi 128 (Rome 1946). --- For the connection between this church and the foundation of S. Chiara, fostered by cardinal Hugolinus, see FILIPPO CARAFFA Il monastero di S. Chiara in Anagni (Anagni 1985) 48-50.

10 I have not seen ALESSANDRO Istoria della citta e S. basilica cattedrale d'Anagni (Rome 1749). See below, Isagoge 1.29.

11 Petrus, bishop of Segni (1179-12.1206). See below, Isagoge 1.7, 1.11, 1.25. At Isagoge 2.23 Boncompagno seems to critize the bishop of Segni: "....Signinus episcopus licet indignus." Et hoc credo, quod accidat veri...

12 Albertus Longus, bishop of Ferentino (22.6.1203-1209). See above, Isagoge 1.3, and below, Isagoge 1.13. For papal letters to bishop Albertus, cf. Po. 1928, 3983. He was a canon of Anagni, consecrated by Innocent III on 31 May 1203, see Chron. Fossae Novae (MURATORI Scr. 7.686) Ann. Ceccan MGH SS 19.296

13 Oddo II, bishop of Veroli (1190-1212). See below, Isagoge 1.14, 2.28.

14 Petrus, bishop of Segni (1179-12.1206). See above Isagoge 1.5, 1.7 and below, 1.25.

15 Ugolinus, cardinal bishop of Ostia and Velletri (8.6.1206-19.3.1227).

16 Johannes III, bishop of Anagni (1197-1220). See below, Isagoge 1.22,24,28.

17 Gregorius Cecarello, cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro (23.10-1190-30.5.1211)

18 Petrus de Sasso, cardinal priest of S. Pudenziana (22.6.1206-31.5.1219).

19 ie. <H>oddo II. See above, Isagoge 1.8, below 2.28. For aspiration of proper nouns beginning with vowels, see Boncompagnus 1.2.5, (see also 1.2.16-17).

20 Soffredus, cardinal priest of S. Prassede (5.3.1193-14.12.1210), patriarch of Jerusalem (1202-1204).

21 Gerardus, cardinal deacon of S. Adriano (2.1.1183-20.7.1208).

22 This presupposes a situation where a dictator met a lord by chance, for whom he composed a letter, and to whom he was unfamiliar. For such an instance, see Quinque tabule salutationum 4.9-10. --- That a dictator will practice a largely itinerant career is largely presupposed in Boncompagno's writings, and his own life witnesses this. In addition, many prelates excercized their offices in transit: popes, emperors, kings, cardinal legates, and lesser lords in the company of their suzerains.

23 'Dictamen' seems to be here nearly synonymous with protocol.

24 Haymar Monachus, patriarch of Jerusalem (1194-1202). He was archbishop of Caesarea 1182-1197, holding both offices for three years.

25 Bartholomeus, archbishop of Caesarea (1198); Petrus, archbishop of Caesarea (1199-1236). See RUDOLF HIESTAND and HANS EBERHARD MAYER "Die Nachfolge des Patriarchen Monachus von Jerusalem" Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde 74 (1974) 109-130.

26Hubaldus, archbishop of Ravenna (21.12.1208-1215). See below, Isagoge 1.21. For the title of the see of Ravenna, see Oliva 8b.15, 10.4, 10.8, 10.10-11, 18.32-33, 38.1-11. For earlier archbishops of the thirteenth century (Aegidius, Albertus), see Po. 1327, 1546.

27 Gerardus Ariosti, bishop of Bologna (1198-1213, deposed). See Oliva 49.1.

28 Angelus Barozzi (1207-1238), patriarch of Grado. According to Boncompagnus 1.2.5, proper names beginning with vowels should be aspirated. Patriarch Benedictus (1201-120?) is another possibility, since an initial 'b.' could easily have been misread by the rubricator who wrote the enlarged capital H. On Benedict, see Po. 1475-1476, 1565. Po. 2394 (PL 215.509, 28 Jan 1205) orders bishop Huguccio of Ferrara visit Venice and inquire concerning the consecrating of patriarch-elect Iohannes of Grado. --- For the primatial title of the patriarch of Grado, see Quinque tabule salutationum 1.7, 4.7, Oliva 18.4 and ALFRED FELBINGER "Die Primatialprivilegien für Italien von Gregor VII bis Innocenz III (Pisa, Grado und Salerno)" ZRG Kan. Abt. 37 (1951) 95-163 at 134-157.

29 Joachim, bishop of Faenza (1208-10.2.1209). See Po. 3649. Joachim replaced Hubaldo, who was transferred to the archiepiscopal see of Ravenna.

30 Bernardus, bishop of Ferentino (1191-22.1.1202). For other bishops of Ferentino see above, Isagoge 1.6, 1.13 and below, 1.25.

31 I Cor. 15.10.

32 A church of S. Salvatore is located 5 km. south of Anagni.

33 Although the manuscript clearly has I., perhaps this initial should be emended to A., for Albertus Longus (22.6.1203-1209), or B., for Bernardus (1191-22.1.1203). See above, Isagoge 1.6, 1.13, and 1.22.

34 For the monastery of S. Pietro of Villamagna, see FILIPPO CARAFFA Monasticon Italiae vol. 1 (Rome 1981). See above, Isagoge 1.4. --- During the Roman Republic, Villamagna was an estate of Pompey.

35 See above, Isagoge 1.4.

36 See GIULIO BATTELLI ed., Rationes decimarum. Latium Studi e testi 128 (Rome 1946); CHRISTOPH HENNIG Latium, das Land um Rom (Cologne 1989); PIERRE TOUBERT Les Structures du Latium medievale 2 vol., Bibliotheque des Ecoles francaises d'Athenes e de Rome 221 (Rome 1973).

37 Haimerich, king of Hungary (1196-1204). The manuscript reading 'Agnie' might be explained as a miixture of 'Ungarie' ('of Hungary') and 'Anglie' ('of England'), perhaps by scribal error, or as the author's attempt to create a fictional kingdom. For another case of the commingling of two widely separate lands into one kingdom, see Oliva 52.4 (Denmark and Greece). --- There are several obviously fictional addressees in Isagoge 1.31-32. --- 'Angaria' (Enger, in Westfalen) does not apply, because it was part of a duchy, not a kingdom. See GERHARD KALLEN "Das Kölner Erzstift und der 'ducatus Westfalie et Angarie' (1180)" Jahrbuch der Kölner Geschichtsverein 31-32 (1956-57) 78-107.

38 Philipp of Swabia, emperor (1197-1207). See also below, Isagoge 1.33. But also see Isagoge 1.32, where the emperor is called 'Petrus'!

39 Lordship over Bologna was transferred from dukes to counts in the ninth century. The last mention of a count of Bologna is 1139: ALFRED HESSEL Geschichte der Stadt Bologna von 1116 bis 1280 (Berlin 1910) 13, 47.

40 The completion of the the archtype's presumed emperor 'P.' (see also Isagoge 1.31) as 'Petrus' serves to undercut Philip of Suabia's claim to the imperial title. For more echos of the German Thronstreit in Boncompagno's previous writings, see Oliva 19.2, 52.1. There have been no Roman emperors named Peter, for an obvious reason, at least since Constantine's adoption of Christianity as the official religion of the empire. --- Only one ruler in Constantinople carried this name: Pierre de Courtenay, count of Auxerre, emperor of the Latin realm of Constantinople 1217-1219; he was a minor under the regency of Conone of Bethune, and he died in prison.

41 Sora, episcopal see east of Veroli, in Campania. See M. MACCARRONE "La famiglia d'Aquino e la politica territoriale di Innocenzo III ai confini della Campania papale" in IDEM Studi su Innocenzo III Italia Sacra 17 (Padua 1972) 167-219. Innocent III's brother Richard was the count of Sora.

42 After Konrad of Urslingen formally renounced in 1198 his duchy to the papal legates Octavian bishop of Ostia and Gerald deacon of S. Adrian, this title was vacant, and the duchy was ruled by the papal rector, Gregorius de Crescentio, cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro. Note that several dukes of Spoleto bore the name Boniface. T. GASPARRINI LEPORACE "Cronologia dei duchi di Spoleto (569-1230)" Bollettino della R. deputazione di storia patria per l'Umbria 35 (1938) 5ff. Recent bibliography in ALDO BRUNACCI and GIUSEPPE CATANZARO edd. Magister Rufinus De bono pacis.

43 Boniface, marquis of Monferrato (1192-1207).

44 Philipp Augustus, king of France (1179-1223).

45 Henry VI, king of Sicily (1194-1197), emperor (1191-1197).

46 Ladislao, king of Hungary (1204-1205).

47 Richard III dell'Aquila, count of Fondi (1186-1212). This salutation concerns Richard's role in mediating between the comune of Terracina and the Frangipani family (Po. 2784, PL 215.891, Po. 3473, PL 215.1449; PL 217.301; MGH Leges 2.223). Cf. Gesta Innocentii III, c. 40 (PL 214.lxxiii-lxxx). For Richard dell'Aquila, see OTHMAR HAGENEDER and ANTON HAIDACHER edd. Die Register Innocenz III 1.814 notes 2 and 3 (letter 1.558) and B. AMANTE and R. BIANCHI Memorie storiche e statutarie del ducato, della contea e dell'episcopato di Fondi in Campania dalle origini fino ai tempi piu remoti (Rome 1903).

48 Iacobus Frangipani, head of that branch of the Frangipani family located in the Turris Chartularia, from which location he directed attacks on the Annibaldi in 1204: Gesta Innocentii III c. 139 (PL 214.cxcii; see also 6.206). On the Turris Chartularia: Oliva 19.13 and AINO KATERMAA OTTELA Le casetorri medievali in Roma Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 67 (Helsinki 1981) 60-61; for the tower's connections with the papal archives: F. EHRLE S.J. "Die Frangipanen und der Untergang des Archivs und der Bibliothek der Päpste am Anfang des 13. Jahrhunderts" Melanges offerts a M. Emile Chatelain (Paris 1910) 448-484.

49 PAOLO BREZZI Roma e l'impero medioevale 774-1252 Storia di Roma 10 (Bologna 1947) 301.

50 For the important noble Roman family of the Frangipani, see MATHIAS THUMSER "Die Frangipane" QFIAB 71 (1991) 106-163, and IDEM Lexikon des Mittelalters 4.688-689. For a speech made by another member of the Frangipane family, Altruda, countess of Brettinoro, see De obsidione Ancone (ZIMOLA ed.) 42-44, also at 28, 31, 38, 39.

51 On the Frangipane title 'comes palatini Lateranenses': PHILIPPE LAUER Le Palais de Latran (Paris 1911) 191. See also Boncompagnus 6.10.2, Epistola mandativa ad comites palatinos XXX. Oliva XXX takes as its subtext the Lateran palace, with special reference to the Sancta Sanctorum.

52 Ildebrandino Aldobrandeschi, count palatine of Tuscany (1225?). See Oliva 54.3 and GASPERO CIACCI Gli Aldobrandeschi nella storia e nella "Divina commedia" (Rome 1980).

53 Ulignano (dioc. Volterra, modern dioc. Colle d'Elsa) is located 7 km. northwest of Poggibonsi, on the left bank of the Elsa river. The abbey Monicchio lay one km. to the southeast; also near by were strongholds of both the Contalberti and the Guidi, rivals of the Aldebrandeschi in Tuscany. (Another Ulignano is located 15 km. to the southwest, between Volterra and S. Gimignano.)

54 Besides the marquis of Monferrat, the marquesses of Busca, of Ceva, and of Incisa also held lands near Asti; the latter two had palaces in the city.

55 Gregorius Pierleone Raynerii was appointed senator by Innocent III April 1204 reappointed in November. The Roman commune opposed to him a government of Buoni Uomini. In November 1204-April 1205 the pope added another 56 senators. Giovanni di Leone was senator in 1207. FRANCO BARTOLINI ed. Codice diplomatico del Senato Romano dal MCXLIV al MCCCXLVII 1. Fonte per la storia d'Italia 87 (Rome 1948) and PAOLO BREZZI Roma e l'impero medioevale 774-1252 Storia di Roma 10 (Bologna 1947); PIETRO GASPARRINI Senatori romani della prima meta del XIII secolo finora ignorati (Rome 1938).

56 Not identified.

57 Gerardinus Rolandini was podesta of Faenza in 1206. See Registrum Innocentii III 9.18 (Po. 2709, PL 215.819, date: 10.3.1206) and Tolosani Chronicon c.128

58 For the prenomen see also Isagoge 2.7. For the development of Italian family names, see AUGUSTO GAUDENZI "Sulla storia del cognome a Bologna nel secolo XIII" Bullettino dell'Istituto Storico Italiano 19 (1898) 1-163.

59 Not identified. I have not seen E. VICINI I podesta di Modena I. (Modena 1913) and GIROLAMO TIRABOSCHI (1731-1794) Memorie storiche modenesi col codice diplomatico (Modena 1793) 3 vols. Innocent III addressed a letter to an unnamed podesta of Modena in Reg. 7.41 (PL 215.323 = Po. 1446).

60 More likely, this letter should be read as 'B.' ------- ALFRED HESSEL Geschichte der Stadt Bologna. For a letter concerning the election of a podesta of Bologna, see Boncompagnus 6.10.12.

61 Sacco is located 8 km northwest of Segni, on the left bank of the Sacco river, which runs through the dioceses of Segni, Anagni, Ferentino and Veroli, bisecting the Ciociaria region of southern Latium. See below, Isagoge 1.65, 2.12.

62 The pieve of Paliano is located 10 km northwest of Anagni, in the diocese of Palestrina. See VINCENZO CELLETTI I Colonna, principi di Paliano (Milan 1960).

63 The pieve of Montefortino (Artena) is located 10 km. northwest of Segni. See IP 2.132 no.4, (ed. PL 201.1158) and ATTILIO CADDERI Artena (gia Montefortino) dalle origini alla fine del secolo XIX (Rome 1973) 50-51. Montefortino is explicitly mentioned as pertaining to the Roman church in the testament of Henry VI.

64 The pieve of Gorga is located 11 km. south of Anagni, midway between Segni and Ferentino.

65 Cf. Epistola mandativa ad comites palatinos XXX.

66 See below, Isagoge 1.61.

67 Matino is a city in Apulia. See ALDO DE BERNART Una fondazione bizantina nel basso salento Santa Anastasia a Matino (Galatina 1990). There is a Marino on the north shore of lake Albano.

68 See below, Isagoge 2.6.

69 This initial could stand generally for the queens of England under William the Conqueror, Henry I and Stephan, all named Mathilda, as were Henry II's mother and his daugher, who married duke Henry the Lion of Saxony.

70 Constance, empress (1190-1198) and wife of emperor Henry VI. Another possibility would be Frederick II's first wife Constance of Aragon, except that she became empress in 1220.

71 See above, Isagoge 1.37.

72 S. Maria di Viano is located 9 km. south of Anagni.

73 Not identified.

© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998

Scrineum © Università di Pavia 1999