Oliva 19 
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[19.] QVI IN SECVLARIBVS POSSINT FACERE PRIVILEGIA ET QVALITER

[19.1] Premisso tractatu priuilegiorum summi pontificis et totius cleri, cui priuilegia facere licet, ad tractandum de priuilegiis imperatoris et regum et illorum principum, quibus est licitum priuilegia concedere, stilum conuerto,231 cupiens titulos, exordia et narrationes, que in ipsis poni regulariter debent, sub breuiloquio assignare.
rubr. om. PTC absit M De priuilegiis imperatoris et regum etc. B       Premissio T Premisio P       priuilegiorum: et add. C       liceat C       imperatoris: imperatorum B       breui subloquio C
[19.2] Verum quia post mortem inuictissimi imperatoris Henrici,232 qui regnum Sicilie obtinuit,233 orta est inter duo234 pro adipiscendo imperio, contentio sub certo non militatur principe. Vnde pro triumphaturo primum ponam elementum,235 ut nomen illius tipice presentet, qui Romanum imperium obtinebit.
inuictissimi: et uictissimi C       Verum quia--medio fiat (19.3) om. B       Henricis C       Sicilie V: Scicilie CMPT       contentio: contento C       qui: quod C
[19.3] Credo tamen in partem unius donec de nodo triplici aliquis resoluatur et de medio fiat.236
tamen: etiam add. C       doenec Vac
[19.4] Romanorum siquidem imperator, qui orbi preest uel preesse debet uniuerso, titulum in suis priuilegiis taliter ponit: "A. Dei gratia" uel "diuina fauente clementia Romanorum imperator augustus." Si autem non fuerit imperator, dicit "Romanorum rex augustus."
Romanorum: praem. B signum paragraphi       imperator om. C       qui: ecclesia add. Vac       taliter om. B       rex: et semper add. B
[19.5] In titulo autem nichil aliud ponitur, nisi quando ecclesiis aut hospitalibus siue religiosis personis priuilegium concedit.237 Tunc enim ponitur ante titulum: "In nomine sancte et indiuidue trinitatis." Et postmodum tale signum uel forte consimile .SS. et postea scribitur unum .C. taliter punctatum238 et intricatum, quod nomen Cesaris239 ymaginarii presentat. Nam omnis Romanorum imperator dicitur esse Cesar240 et quilibet rex Egipti Pharao. Constantinopolitanus moderator qui regnat in Moroch Miramominum appellatur,241 quod nos Maximultum nominamus.242 Et non ponuntur ista signa in omnibus priuilegiis, sed in quibusdam.
In titulo--inferius dicam (19.7) om. B        SS.: sermo (vel secundum) PT       postea om. C       quod nomen--Maximultum C: om. MVPT
[19.6] Ad quid autem hec ponantur, ignoro. Verumtamen credo, quod aut pro signo latenti aut loco paragrafy|[75rb] ponuntur. Vel forte signa sunt alicuius notarii uel scriptoris, qui taliter priuilegia, que scribit, signare consueuit. Sed de iure ante Dominicam inuocationem deberet preponi crux punctata.|[27rb]
quid: quod C       uerumtamen: uerum C       loco om. V
[19.7] Post premissi uero tituli positionem statim sequitur exordium. Post exordium uero nominat illum siue illos, quibus priuilegia concedit, sicut inferius dicam.243
premissi: premissam M
[19.8] Set queri posset, cum imperator in omnium epistolarum titulis dicat omni tempore "semper augustus" et omnium recipientium nomina in eisdem titulis ponat, quare in priuilegiis eundem ordinem non seruet?244 Insipientium namque caterue asserunt solam consuetudinem esse in curia et numquam reperi aliquem, qui aliter moueretur.
eisdem: eiusdem C       curia legi: ca~ MVPT causa C       et numquam--moueretur om. B       qui: ita nominatur add. Vac       moueretur: mouereutur Vac
[19.9] Ad hoc dico, quod positio imperialis tituli non a consuetudine, sed a magne iustitie radice processit. Vidit enim imperator, quod imperium perpetuum erat, sed eius dignitas transitoria et caduca,245 quoniam breui tempore quilibet illa potitur. Vnde quandoque in priuilegiorum exordiis dicit "Transitorii regni dignitas"246 et ideo non dicit "et semper" ante "augustum" nec "in perpetuum."
processit: procedent C       potitur: ponitur V absit B sed habet spatium octo elementorum       regni: nostri add. B       et semper ante augustum nec: semper augustum uel B
[19.10] Vel "in perpetuum" ideo non dicit, quoniam de successorum constantia certitudinem non habet.247 Nam quod unus hedificat, alter destruit et quod unus approbat, alter abhorret.248
Vel in perpetuum om. V       in perpetuum tr. B post dicit       quoniam: quia B       Nam quod--alter destruit om. B       edificat C       aboret C aborret V
[19.11] Vel "in perpetuum" ideo non dicit, ut ualeat auferre concessa, restituere ablata et permutare temporales possessiones in omnes et singulos, secundum quod sue placuerit uoluntati.
sue placuerit uoluntati: sibi placuerit B
[19.12] Nomina siquidem recipientium in priuilegiorum titulis non ponit, quia non ponitur postea "in perpetuum" nec aliud, quod uerbum concessiuum seu permissiuum subintelligi faciat.
ponit: ponuntur B       postea tr. B post perpetuum       quod uerbum concessiuum seu permissiuum om. B       faciat: fiat B
[19.13] Si autem queratur, quod uerbum in premisso titulo intelligatur, responderi potest quod substantiuum. Nam Rome in arcu triumphali, qui est iuxta Cartulariam,249 ubi arca federis est,250 inferius in marmore sculpta lapideis est litteris scriptum "Senatus populusque Romanus" et non fuit ibi positum aliquod uerbum...251
intelligatur: subintelligatur B       substantiuum: uerbum praem. B       arcu: archu C       Cartulariam: Cartularias C       arca: archa C B       sculpta: sculpto V sepulta B       est om. B       lapideis est litteris: lapides est litera C       scriptum om. V
[19.14] Vnde uidetur, quod uerbum ibi debeat substantiuum intelligi, propter dignitatem senatus252 et populi Romani. Porro in multis locis per|[27va] Urbem consimili modo est scriptum253 et non ponitur alicubi uerbum. Videtur igitur, quod hic debeat intelligi pro imperatore.254
unde uidetur (nota C) quod uerbum om. V       ibi: ubi V       debeat: poni add. B       substantiuum: saltim add. B       et: idest B       consimili: simili C       consimili modo est: est sic B       alicubi: alicui C B       uerbum: substantiuum add. B       hic: hoc C
[19.15] Verbum siquidem substantiuum255 dignissimum est omnium uerborum,256 quia cum relatiuo ponatur, diuinam significat essentiam,257 sicut habetur in ueteri testamento, ubi dicitur "Qui est, misit me uos", et in nouo, "Ego sum, qui sum".258
siquidem om. B       relatiuo legi: relatio codd. relatiuum B       ponatur: positum C B ponitur PT       significat: denotat B       Qui est: quod C       me: ad add. C
[19.16] Verumtamen et uerbum permissiuum et concessiuum largo modo ibi subintelligi potest.259
et concessiuum om. PT
[19.17] Post tituli autem positionem sic incipit dictator uel incipere potest exordiri.
tituli B: titulum codd.       sic incipit: sicut in opere C       exordiri: vacat C duas lineas B ponit ibi signum paragraphi
[19.18] "Cum imperialem deceat maiestatem uniuersorum iura conseruare illesa et sue magnitudinis munimine confouere, oportet nos, qui diuina faciente gratia Romano imperio presidemus, iustis petitionibus condescendere et tam in communibus quam in priuatis legibus ita prouidere singulis, quod spirituales et seculares persone proprio maneant iure contente."
maiestatem: magestatem B       munimine: quoslibet add. CB       faciente: fauente CB       gratia: clementia B       petitionibus: precibus C       communibus: rationibus C       proprio om. B       maneant: moueant C suo add. B       contente: contempte C contenti B

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231 The oral equivalent of this phrase (converto sermonem) appears in Boncompagnus prol. 3.1 and 1.20.5.

232 Henry VI died 28 September 1197. The signature of his charters read 'Signum domini Henrici Romanorum imperatoris invictissimi'.

233 See Liber de obsidione Ancone 28 (ZIMOLO ed. 50.1): post mortem videlicet imperatoris Henrici, qui regnum Sicilie obtinuit.

234 Philipp of Swabia (8 March 1198-21 June 1208), Otto of Brunswick (9 Juni 1198-1218). Although here Boncompagno speaks of two contestants, three candidates seem to be suggested at Oliva 19.3 (although triplici may not mean 'treble', see note 236 below).

235 Cf. the littere formate: Gratian's Decretum D.73, Regino von Prum Libri duo de synodalibus causis (WASSERSCHLEBEN ed. 199), Ivo of Chartres Decretum 6.433, Anselm of Lucca 6.121, Burchard of Worms Decretum 2.227. See also below, Oliva 36.1.

236 A 'triple knotted conflict' over the imperial crown would include the the young Frederic II, as does the Deliberatio domini pape Innocentii super facto imperii de tribus electis (RNI ed. FRIEDRICH KEMPF, no. 29). Is Boncompagno suggesting Frederic II as a compromise candidate with 'de medio fiat'? For usage, see also below, Oliva 4.2, Mirra 9.1, Boncompagnus 4.4.30, 5.20.1 §9, 6.12.2. This phrase is often applied to death, as in 'de medio (vite)'. But triplici need not literally mean 'trebled': see Liber de obsidione Ancone 9 (ZIMOLO ed. 27, note 1): 'tripertita' va preso in senso generico di 'diviso', 'distribuita', ma non specificamente 'in tre parti'; and above, Oliva 9.19 and below 42.8. Depending on one's interpretation of it, Oliva 19.3 may be important for dating the text.

237 Contrary to Boncompagno's scheme, chrismon and invocatio were also used in Staufer grants to lay recipients. On the lack of addressees in imperial diplomas, see above, Oliva 5.5, below 19.8, 50.1.

238 For the epigraphic littere punctate, see Boncompagnus 1.27.8: Sed olim fiebant sculpture mirabiles in marmoribus electissimis cum litteris punctatis, quas hodie plenarie legere vel intelligere non valemus. This letter form was less common in papal charters: BEATE KRUSKE "Zeilen, Ränder und Initiale. Zur Normierung des Layouts hochmittelalterlicher Papsturkunden" in PETER RüCK ed. Mabillons Spur: Zweiundzwanzig Miszellen aus dem Fachgebiet für Historische Hilfswissenschaften der Philipps-Universität Marburg, zum 80. Geburtstag von Walter Heinemeyer (Marburg 1992) 231-245 at 233, note 10: "Vereinzelt finden sich im 12. Jh. Papstnamensinitialen, die sich diesen drei Gruppen nicht eindeutig zuordnen lassen, etwa geschwärzte Initialen, die an den Schäften und Balken mit Knoten oder dicken schwarzen Punkten verziert wurden. Solche Fälle wurden in der Gruppe 'andere Variante' zusammmengefasst." For the crux punctata, see above, Oliva 9.2, 10.4.

239 According to medieval legend, 100 days before his assassination a lightning bolt struck the column of Julius Caesar (columpna Iulia or Aculea: Vatican obelisk), erasing the 'C' in his name (Gaius? or Caesar?). Cf. Martin of Troppau Chronicon (MGH SS 22.406). On this column, see Boncompagnus 1.27.4 and W. HAFTMANN Das italienische Säulenmonument (Leipzig 1939) 65-66; on the assassination of Julius Caesar: Boncompagnus prol. 3.10. For another juxtaposition of epigraphy and diplomatic, see below, Oliva 19.13-14.

240 'Caesar' is used generically in Boncompagnus 1.23.3 §7, 2.2.1, 3.4.5 §1, 4.5.4 and 5.22.3 §4; it is used of the contemporary German emperors in Boncompagnus 1.23.3 §7, 1.25.10, 3.4.5 §1, 4.4.1 and Rhetorica novissima 5.4.1.3.

241 Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad al-Nasir, Emir al-Mu'minin of Morocco, fourth Almohaden in North Africa and Spain (1199-1213). See Encyclopedie de L'Islam 3.937 (Paris 1936) and GIULIO CIPOLLONE Christianita--Islam: Cattivita e liberazione in nome di Dio. Il tempo di Innocenzo III dopo 'il 1187' (Rome 1992) 348, 426-9, 506 (document no. 26). I have not seen two recent studies by M. ALVIRA CABRER (Universidad Complutense de Madrid): "La imagen del Miramamolín al-Nasir (1199-1213) en las fuentes cristianas del siglo XIII.” Anuario de estudios medievales 26 (1996) 1003-1028 and “El desafio del Miramamolin antes de la batalla de Las Navas de Tolosa (1212). Fuentes, datación y posibles origenes” Al-Qantara 18 (1997) 463-490.

242 See Palma 45, Boncompagnus 4.2.5, 4.4.3 and KARL-ERNST LUPPRIAN Die Beziehungen der Päpste zu islamischen und mongolischen Herrschern im 13. Jahrhundert anhand ihres Briefwechsels (Città del Vaticano 1981) Studi e testi, 291.

243 Below, Oliva 33.1.

244 For a discussion of the epithet of 'et semper' added to 'augustus' in Staufer titles, ULRICH SCHMIDT Königswahl und Thronfolge im 12. Jahrhundert (Cologne/Vienna 1987) 97-100, 147-151. For the lack of addressees in imperial diplomas, see above, Oliva 19.4-5.

245 The background of this expression is Cicero De amicitia 102 (res humanae fragiles caducaeque sunt). A closer match is Alexander Neckam In Ecclesiasten 1.2 (Cambridge, Trinity College, R.16.4, fol. 119vb; v. Eccl. 1.2) : Cum enim animus humanus fragilitatem humane conditionis in libro experientie assidue legat, docet hominem se ipsum parvipendere et condempnere. Incipere namque debet homo a seipso, ut se miserum esse et infinitis vanitatibus obnoxium addiscat, deinde mundana caduca et transitoria et frivola esse sentiat, demum quadam felici mentis extasi in amorem conditoris sui rapiatur, and in 1.9 (fol. 133vb): Quam enim spem tibi prebere potuerunt res fugitive, res caduce, res transitorie, res tot et tantis vanitatibus obnoxie? --- Cf. also transitoria fugeret et caduca (Boncompagnus 5.1.16); other doublets with transitoria: transitoria et fugitiva (Quinque tabule salutationum 2.18), temporalem vel transitoria (Boncompagnus 1.22.2), transitoria gloria et dubitabili munere (Boncompagnus 1.25.5). On this theme, see ERNST KANTOROWICZ The King's Two Bodies (Princeton 1957).

246 DDF.I.111, 116, 374 and +1070. Cf. Mirra 1.3 and below Oliva 25.2.

247 On the succession plans of Barbarossa and Henry VI, see ULRICH SCHMIDT Königswahl und Thronfolge im 12. Jahrhundert (Cologne 1987), PETER CSENDES Heinrich VI. (Darmstadt 1993) 171-78 and below, Oliva 50.3.

248 See Quinque tabule salutationum 4.31: et quod unus approbat, alter sepenumero vituperat.

249 On the Turris cartularia, which was a possession of the Frangipani family at the time of the Oliva, see AINO KATERMAA OTTELA Le casetorri medievali in Roma Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 67 (Helsinki 1981) 60-61. The 'locus chartularii' was pictured on Staufer seals; Rome is represented as the area near the Coliseum. For the tower's connections with the papal archives, F. EHRLE S.J. "Die Frangipanen und der Untergang des Archivs und der Bibliothek der Päpste am Anfang des 13. Jahrhunderts" Melanges offerts a M. Emile Chatelain (Paris 1910) 448-484. The Frangipani were styled 'comes palatini Lateranenses', PHILIPPE LAUER Le Palais de Latran (Paris 1911) 191; on them see Isagogue 1.36-37 and MATHIAS THUMSER "Die Frangipane" QFIAB 71 (1991) 106-163.

250 The arch of Titus, located west of the Colosseum and southwest of S. Maria Nova. See Liber de obsidione Ancone 1 (ZIMOLO ed. 7.5-8), M. PFANNER Der Titusbogen (Mainz 1983) and SANDRO DE MARIA Gli archi onorari di Roma e della Italia (Rome 1988), H.U. INSTINSKY Philologus 97 (1948) 370ff.

251 This inscription is on the east side of the arch of Titus: SENATVS | POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS | DIVO TITO, DIVI VESPASIANI F(ILIO), | VESPASIANO AVGVSTO. Cf. Corpus inscriptionum latinarum 6.943 n. 945 (Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 265), Josephus Iud. 7.17.; IP 1.178-183. Apart from the question of the 'missing verb' in salutations (see above Oliva7.7), such inscriptions also provided additional evidence that in ancient practice of address the sender's name came first (on which see Quinque tabule salutationum 1.27). For the formulas of address in Latin epigraphy, see G. WALSER Die Einseidler Inschriftensammlung (Stuttgart 1987).

252 Boncompagno on the Roman senate: Quinque tabule salutationum 5.7-8, Isagoge 1.38-39, Rhetorica novissima 9.4.8. See also FRANCO BARTOLINI ed. Codice diplomatico del Senato Romano dal MCXLIV al MCCCXLVII 1. Fonte per la storia d'Italia 87 (Rome 1948).

253 For the influence of 'SPQR' inscriptions on the Roman commune, see INGRID BAUMGARTEN "Rombeherrschung und Romerneuerung: Die römische Kommune im 12. Jahrhundert" QFIAB 69 (1989) 27-79 at 36, note 23.

254 See ERNST KANTORWICZ "Nomen imperatoris" in Selected Studies (Locust Valley N.Y, 1965).

255 On the verbum substantivum in grammar and the Old Logic, see R.W. HUNT "Studies on Priscian in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. I. Petrus Helias and his Predecessors" Medieval and Renaissance Studies 1 (1941) 194-231 at 220-231 and NORMANN KRETZMANN "The Culmination of the Old Logic in Peter Abelard" in Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century edd. ROBERT L. BENSON and GILES CONSTABLE (Los Angeles 1982) 488-511.

256 Cf. the gloss idoneiores ad D.50.6.6.11: Apud Boethium idoneius est predicatum quam subiectum in constituenda propositione (the gloss cites Boethius De sillogismo categorico, PL 64.798C).

257 Cf. Prima collectio decretalium Innocentii tertii 1.1. (PL 216.1175-1179 at 1175D, Po. 1199, Dec. 1200): Porro cum in persona divina non sit nisi relatio vel essentia, si persona divina proprium nomen haberet, illud utique relationem vel essentiam designaret.

258 Both quotes are from Exod. 3.14. For the Gospels, cf. Marc. 13.6, 14.62, Luc. 21.8, 22.70, 24.36,39, Ioh. 4.26, 8.28, 8.58, 9.9, 13.19, 18.5,6,8; also Apoc. 1.4, 1.8, 4.8, 11.7).

259 For analysis of the missing verbs in salutations, see above Oliva 7.7, 19.12 and Quinque tabule salutationum 2.17-19.


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