Oliva 40-42 
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[40.] QVID SIT CONFIRMATIO

[40.1] Confirmatio est iustitie robur, equitatis clippeus, contradicentium repagulum302 et presidium impotentum.
rubr. om. PT absit MC       clipeus CM       contradicentam V
[40.2] Vel confirmatio est, sicut in Palma diffiniui,|[31va] 'quedam uoluntaria et auctorizabilis concessio, que semper a maiori persona minori confertur.'303
persona om. PT
[40.3] Vel 'confirmatio est sententie seu dignitatis exhibite rationabilis approbatio.'304
aprobatio V

[41.] VNDE DICATVR

[41.1] Confirmatio dicitur a 'confirmo' uel 'confirmatore', quoniam a confirmatore confirmatio procedit.
rubr. om. T absit MCP       Confirmatio: onfirmatio T (rubricator om. c)       uel: a add. CM       procedit: concedit P conceditur T

[42.] QVOT SINT CONFIRMATIONVM SPECIES

[42.1] Confirmationum uero species sunt tres: Vna est in scriptis, altera in solis uerbis, tertia in uerbis et appositione uirge in manu et quandoque clauium et hostiorum.
rubr. om. PT absit MC       tertia in uerbis om. V per homoioteleuton
[42.2] In scriptis, ut cum aliquid alicui litteris confirmatur.305

[42.3] In solis uerbis, prout multotiens maiores persone dicere consueuerunt 'Firmum et ratum habemus',306 quod factum est, nec uolunt, quod ab aliquo remittetur.

quod--uolunt om. C per homoioteleuton       uolunt: uolimus M
[42.4] In uerbis et appositione uirge in manu uel clauium et hostiorum, sicut fit in multis partibus, quod quando aliquid alicui conceditur a minoribus, maiores postmodum persone uirgam illi ponunt in manu, dicentes: 'Et nos ita confirmamus' uel sic: 'te in istorum presentia inuestimus.'307

[42.5] Claues enim in manibus ponere generalis est per Italiam consuetudo. Nam quando archipresbyteri siue plebani sacerdotes inuestiunt de capellis, in signum confirmationis eis ponunt claues308 in manibus et in quibusdam locis et claues et ianuas ecclesie.309

in manibus--claues om. PT       in quibusdam: in om. M
[42.6] Alii autem hoc totum faciunt et etiam funes tintinabulorum exhibent. Vnde recipientes aliquantulum tintinabula pulsant,310 ut eorum confirmatio seu inuestitura fortius roboretur. Istam autem consuetudinem attendentes, tenent in diuersis mundi partibus abbates, archidiaconi, prepositi, decani, priores et alii ecclesiarum prelati.
attendentes tenent: retinent C
[42.7] Enimuero,311 cum papa dat alicui executorem,312 precipit multotiens ipsi executori, ut ad locum accedere non postponat sicque ius habentem mittat in corporalem possessionem, unde tunc et claues et ianuas ecclesie ponit in manibus|[31vb] illius.

[42.8] Et quandoque funes tintinabulorum pulsando aliquantulum ipsa tintinabula exhibet ad euidentiora indicia confirmationis. Profecto per tintinabulorum|[77va] sonitum corda mortalium uigorantur et uictorum313 mentibus innascitur quedam inenarrabile tripudium314 et iocunditas triplicata.

[42.9] Preterea dominus papa quandoque confirmat patriarchas, quandoque archiepiscopos per transmissionem pallii.315 Et imperator reges et principes per imperialia insignia, que illis per legatos transmittit.

Preteria M       palli V palii T
[42.10] Vnde notandum est, quod confirmationum alia est simplex, alia sollempnis. Simplex est illa, que fit solis uerbis aut appositione uerge in manu aut simplicibus scriptis. Sollempnis est illa, que fit in scriptis et sigilli munimine roboratur. Sollempnis etiam illa dici potest, quam papa facit per transmissionem pallii et imperator per imperialis signi largitionem.
imperator: reges et principes add. V per homoioteleuton

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302 For this word used in the singular, see Matthaeus Vidocinensis Ars versificatoria 2.2 (Galfredus Vinsauf Poetria nova 1077, where it is plural), and Boncompagnus 3.16.16 (hereticorum repagulum).

303 Palma 12. This is actually the Palma's definition of privilege, also quoted above, Oliva 2.1.

304 Palma 14. On confirmation as the constituitive approval (by the pope) of the election to an office, see ROBERT L. BENSON The Bishop-elect (Princeton 1968) 185ff. See Oliva c.49.

305 The simple written confirmation is the lowest, whereas the written and sealed confirmation is the highest species. See below, Oliva 42.10.

306 Cf. the charter formula: Quod ut ratum et inconvulsum...(manuscript M takes this whole sentence to be an oral formula).

307 Here Boncompagno uses confirmation as the investiture of a benefice. On the complicated connection between confirmation and investiture in the election of a bishop: ROBERT L. BENSON The Bishop-elect (Princeton 1968).

308 See art. 'Schlussel' in Handwörterbuch zur deutschen Rechtsgeschichte 1443, CONRAD BORCHLING Rechtssymbolik in rom. und germ Recht (Darmstadt 1965) and ROBERT BRENTANO Two Churches: England and Italy in the Thirteenth Century (Princeton 1968) 70.

309 For a written confirmation of P.'s investiture in the chapel of S. Maria de Oliveto, by G., archpriest of Montevecchio, Bologna, see below, Oliva 59.3, 60.1-5. On the symbolic action of investiture, see HAGEN KELLER "Die Investitur" Frühmittelalterliche Studien 27 (1993) 51-86.

310 See R. W. SOUTHERN The Making of the Middle Ages (London 1953) 98-100, 105.

311 For enimvero, see Tractatus virtutum §8.

312 See ADAM ZIRKEL Executio potestatis. Zur Lehre Gratians von der geistlichen Gewalt Münchener Theologische Studien3, Kanonistische Abteilung 33 (St. Ottilien 1975) and review by RUDOLF WEIGAND ZRG kan. Abt. 63 (1977) 318-327.

313 The celebration of victory was an important topic in Boncompagno's rhetorical repetoire, a topic which also appears above, Oliva 1.7.

314 For this victory dance, see also Liber de obsidione Ancone (ZIMOLO ed. 31.3, 42.5).

315 Formula for delivering pallia: Liber Censuum (FABRE ed.) 1.417. On the pallium, see PAUL MARIA BAUMGARTEN "Beiträge zur Geschichte des Palleum" Miscellanea Francesco Ehrle II Scritti di Storia e Paleografia (Rome, Studi e testi 38, 1924) 338-347 and above, Oliva 37.6.


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© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998
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