Oliva 5 
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[5.] QVI PRELATI ECCLESIARVM POSSVNT CONCEDERE <PRIVILEGIA ET INFRINGERE>

[5.1] Licet enim imperatori secundum uocabuli diffinitionem principaliter et proprie priuilegium facere. In ueteri namque testamento summi sacerdotes non constituebant aliquid, sed duarum tabularum leges obseruabant, quas Moyses ex precepto Domini dederat illis.44 Set pape constitutiones non leges, set canones45 uel decreta hodie appellantur. Vnde non uidetur, quod sua statuta deberet priuilegia nominare.
rubr. absit CMPT            icet M (rubricator om. l)            uocaboli C            proprium M            aliquid: aliquod C            obseruabant: conseruabant PT            Set: se PT            non leges sed canones om. CV per homoioteleuton           non om. C           deberet: deberent MT           nominare: nominari M
[5.2] Ceterum tam papa quam patriarche, archiepiscopi et episcopi illo generali uocabulo utuntur et suas sollempnes constitutiones uolunt priuilegia numcupare. Possunt etiam de iure hoc facere,46 quia canones et decreta leges sunt diuine, sicut Dominus expressissime dixit: "Non ueni soluere legem sed adimplere."47 Igitur canones uel decreta sunt diuine leges, que a lege Christi, idest ab euangeliis, originem trahunt.
solempnes MPT solumpnas C            quia canones: episcopatos C            dicxit M           sed: si C
[5.3] Licet autem priuilegia infringere et annulare principaliter solis duobus, pape uidelicet ac imperatori; secundario uero uniuersis regibus in suis regnis ceterisque principibus in proprio districtu.48 Papa uero non concedit sibi subditis priuilegia, que aliis concesserint infringere sine speciali mandato suo.
et C: om. MPTV            concesserint C (concessserant PT): concesserat MV
[5.4] Preterea potest papa imperatorem priuilegiare et imperator papam; ille istum in spiritualibus, iste illum in temporalibus, sicut fecit Constantinus Siluestrum, quando iuit ad edificandam urbem Constantinopolitanam.49|[19ra] Papa uero posset imperatorem priuilegiare in quibusdam spiritualibus, sicut Clemens .III.50 .W.51 quondam regem Sicilie priuilegiauit. Concessit enim sibi per speciale priuilegium, ut quedam episcopalia insignia archiepiscopis et episcopis in suo regno in signum confirmationis conferret.52
et add. Vpc            .W. om. C            ut om. MPT            et om. C add. supra Mpc            conferret V: conferre M conferet PT
[5.5] Set queri posset: Ecce imperator uult de aliquibus terrenis priuilegiare papam, premittet nomen pape in titulo?53 Videtur quod non, quia Constantinus suum nomen Siluestro premisit, ut: "Ego Constantinus."54 Quod autem papa debeat suum nomen, cum imperatori priuilegium facit, premittere, non est dubitandum.55 Ceterum, quia hoc uix aut numquam aliquibus occurret, duxi sub silentio pretereundum.56
non quia: numquam C            premissit V            debeat CM: dederat VPT            aliquibus: alicui C            ocurreret duxci M            pretereundum: pretermittendum T duxi M

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44 Exod. 31.18; this original tradito legis also portrayed in Mirra 2.2. Cf. DIETER TIMPE "Moses als Gesetzgeber" Saeculum 31 (1980) 66-77 and JöRG MIELKE Der Dekalog in den Rechtstexten des abendlaendischen Mittelalters Untersuchungen zur deutschen Staats- und Rechtsgeschichte n.s. vol. 29 (Aalen 1992). --- According to John the Deacon Liber de ecclesia Lateranensi c.3 (PL 194.1543-1560), the tablets of Decalogue had been brought to Rome by the emperor Titus and later were enshrined in the Lateran's high altar. Legend associated these fabled relics with the Sancta Sanctorum, the pope's private chapel in the Lateran palace. On the Sancta Sanctorum, see above Oliva 1.3.

45 Decretum Gratiani D. 3, dictum in princ.: Ecclesiastica constitutio nomine canonis censetur.

46 Tancred, gloss on 1 Comp. 5.6.11,[X. 5.7.9, FRIEDBERG ed. 2.781] v. imperialia statuta: Quoniam cum ista constitutio fuerit facta per dominum papam imperatore presente et in omnibus consentiente, et lex potest merito dici. T. (Vat. lat. 1377 and 2509). Cf. Mirra 2.4. Honorius III confirmed some of Frederick II's laws at his imperial coronation, 22 November 1220 (Po. 6408), see also Liber X 5.39.49 (Po. 6598).

47 Matt. 5.17.

48 Cedrus 5.1.

49 Forged donation supposed granted by pope Silvester (314-335) to the emperor Constantine (306-337): Das Constitutum Constantini (Konstantinische Schenkung) ed. HORST FUHRMANN (Hanover 1968).

50 Clement III, pope (1187-1191).

51 William II, Norman king of Sicily (1166-1189.

52 IP 8.55 no. 219 (1188). See also Gesta Innocentii III § 21 (PL 214.xxxi-xxxii).

53 Titles of imperial diplomas normally do not mention the recipient. See below, Oliva 19.4-5. But subjective form was employed in grants made to the pope, such as the one Otto IV made in 1201 to Innocent III (MGH Const. 2.20, no. 16 and 2.27, n. 23; RNI no. 77, KEMPF ed. 207-211); see also the earlier examples transmitted in Decretum D.63 c.30 and D.64 c.33. For analysis of the 1201 grant, see JOHANNES HALLER "Innocenz III. und Otto IV." in Papsttum und Kaisertum (Munich 1926) 475-507.

54 Transmission of the Donation of Constantine (see above, note 49) does not not include a subjective title, although the emperor's name does go before the pope's. But the text offered by Decretum D.96 c.14 omits the protocol, thus allowing the supposition of a subjective title placing the emperor's name first, in analogy with Decretum D.63 cc.30, or with the Henricianum, inscribed on the walls of the Lateran palace. For the close proximity of the symbolic depiction of the Donation to the Henricianum in the west wing of the Lateran palace, see below, note 56. --- On the canonistic transmission, parts of which also included a objectively formulated protocol, see JOHANNA PETERSMANN "Die kanonistische überlieferung des Constitutum Constantini bis zum Dekret Gratians: Untersuchung und Edition" DA 30 (1974) 356-449.

55 But see Quinque tabule salutationum 1.27: Et nota, quod papa semper premittit nomen suum, cuicumque scribat. Et quicumque sibi scribunt, semper nomen pape premittunt, licet Gregorius et quidam alii olim aliter fecerint. Reperitur enim in decretis, quod quidam summi pontifices premiserunt nomina imperatorum in salutatione. Sharp disagreement emerged in 1159 (Rahwin Gesta Friderici 4.21) between Barbarossa's chancery and the papal curia concerning the correct order of address and the majestic plural. Although most 12th-century artes dictaminis treat such matters precedence and form of address, explicit reference to the historical precedents of this conflict appear first here. Boncompagno probably drew his historical awareness from decretist commentary to D. 97 c. 2 and the glossators on Codex 1.1.8. For texts and analysis, see my "Barbarossa's Chancery Ordinance", unpublished paper delivered at the October 1987 UCLA Medieval Latin Colloquiuum.

56 At the time of the Oliva's composition, the most notable recent examples of papal-imperial charters were those of the Concordat of Worms (1122). See INGO HERKLOTZ "Die Beratungsräume Calixtus II. im Lateranpalast und ihre Fresken: Kunst und Propoganda am Ende des Investiturstreits" Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 52 (1989) 145-214. HERKLOTZ proves that the fresco in question, located on the walls of a antechamber (camera pro secretis consiliis) to the chapel of S. Nicholas, depicts emperor Henry V granting his privilege to pope Calixtus II. This imaginary scene included an inscription transmitting the full text of the imperial charter, the Henricianum, so-called because of its subjective title placing the emperor's name first. No memorials survived at Rome to the Calixtinum, the charter pope Calixtus' granted to Henry V. This suppression supported the ideology of a papal triumph in the Investiture conflict, as did the other frescos of the antechamber, which show throned reforming popes trampling their respective anti-popes. This small room (4 X 7 meters) stood south of the Triclinium's mosaic apse, which symbolically depicted the Donation of Constantine flanked by Charlemagne's imperial coronation. North of Leo III's Triclinium (papal consistory) was the Sancta Sanctorum (on which: see above, Oliva 1.3). These rooms comprise the east wing of the Lateran palace, the 'location' of the papal chancery--that is, the area where curial business was conducted, including hearing petitions and drafting charters, when the pope was at Rome. --- For a hypothetical example of a preamble to a charter granted by a pope to an emperor, see below, Oliva 7.13-14. --- For a Roman topographical reference to the papal archives, see below, Oliva 19.13.


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© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998
Scrineum © Università di Pavia 1999