Oliva 8b 
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[8b. DE NARRATIONIBVS QVI IN PRIVILEGIIS PONVNTVR]

[8b.1] Signa quidem narrationis priuilegiorum sunt "hinc est" uel "inde est" et similia.94  Verum quia tediosum esset et superfluuium omnia narrandi genera, que in summi pontificis aut in aliis priuilegiis ponuntur, specificare, idcirco breuissime per narrationum seriem proposui transire.
narrationis priuilegiorum: narrationem in priuilegiis B       inde: ideo B       et similia tr. B post quia       superfluum CV       summis PT       aut om. C       ponuntur: potuerunt C etc. add. B       specificare idcirco--(10.25 infra) filiolos nominabat om. B
[8b.2] Nam uniuersi, qui a papa sunt priuilegiati, quando faciunt sua priuilegia renouari, uix aut numquam in eisdem aliquid mutatur, preter propria nomina, que in titulo ponuntur. Et si aliqua priuilegia de nouo ibi aliqui acquirerent, semper inuenient dictatores in genere, quod illos in specie ponere oportet, sicut etiam et in aliis curiis diuersis respectibus contingit.
priuilegiati sunt tr. C       sua faciunt tr. C       preter: papa T tr. V post nomina       aliqua: a qua P       aliqui: aliquid V       acquirerint M (acquirent C): acquirunt PTV       sicut C: sic codd. contingit: coniugit C
[8b.3] Variant autem quandoque boni dictatores exordia, aut quia uolunt uideri copiosi95 aut quia tedet eos multiplicis repetitionis. Sed narrationem illos nullomodo uariare oportet, quia derogaretur forte recipientium iuri, nisi a primordio male fuerit ordinata uel nisi debeat minui aut augmentari.
quandoque: quando PT       exordia aut: aut om. M       repetitio C
[8b.4] Habita ergo in genere unius priuilegii notitia omnium potest de facile haberi. Non est ergo necessarium premissis exordiis narrando per singula respondere, quia quedam sunt ibi exordia, post que uix aut numquam aliqua narratio subsequetur, sicut in exordiis imperatoris et regum.96 Et si quandoque occurret, paucissimis necessaria erit.
de om. T       exordiis: ex tediis C       quia: Cuua C       que post tr. M
[8b.5] Profecto exordia illa fuerunt ad exercitium dictata. Alia uero exordia uel similia plurimis dictatoribus necessaria sunt et presertim illis, qui de rebus ecclesiasticis priuilegia facere uolunt.
quandoque om. C       occurerent C
[8b.6] Et quia|[72rb] dominus papa uiros ecclesiasticos frequentius priuilegiat, ideo de narrationis serie, que post exordia ponitur, quedam uolo hic annotare. Nam sicut superius dixi, narrationis signa sunt "hinc est" uel "inde est" et similia.
annotare: amature PT       dicxi M
[8b.7] Post illa uero|[21rb] signa ponuntur quandoque uocatiui, ut "uenerabilis frater", si patriarcha est uel archiepiscopus aut episcopus. Si uero alius uel alii "dilecte filii" uel "dilecti filii" et non ponuntur semper uocatiui, set quandoque, ut predixi.
frater: fratris V       est om. C       dilecti: dilecte TP       filie T       uocatiui semper tr. M       predicxi M prius dixi C
[8b.8] Postmodum uero sic procedit "quod petitiones tuas," aut "uestras", si de pluribus loquitur: "equas attendentes et fauorabiles." Si autem patriarcha uel archiepiscopus aut episcopus fuerit, pro quo priuilegium facit, subiungit: "ecclesiam beate Marie, cui auctore Deo preesse dignosceris, sub beati Petri et nostra protectione suscepimus, statuentes etc."
uero add. Cpc       sic: si PT praem. non Cac       ecclesiam--dignosceris om. T       suscipimus C       statuentes: fraudulentes PT
[8b.9] Pro quibuslibet conuentualibus ecclesiis sic procederet "ecclesiam beate Maria, in qua diuino mancipati estis obsequio, sub beati Petri et nostra protectione suscipimus, statuentes etc." Set pro aliquibus hospitalariis, sic: "hospitale Ierosolimitanum" uel "templum Domini" siue "hospitale sancti Iacobi de Alto Pascio,97 in quo diuino mancipati estis obsequio etc." Pro uirginibus non mutabit nisi masculinum in femininum.
Pro--statuentes etc. om. C per homoioteleuton       hospitale--siue om. T per homoioteleuton       Pascio: Passio VC       etc. om. C       mutabit: testabitur C
[8b.10] Et est notandum, quod quicumque scribit "Statuentes"98 post "suscipimus" per litteram grossam, errat non modicum, quia littera grossa debet esse clausule inceptio, nisi forte sit proprium nomen, cuius prima littera ob hoc scribi debet grossa, ut certitudo de nomine habeatur, aut causa honoris prout in Tractatu punctorum dixi.99 Set, si scribatur participium per litteram grossam, uidebitur esse clausule inceptio.100
est: non add. Pac       grossam: crossam PT crosam M       errat: erarat T       grossa: crossa PT crosa M       nisi: non P       littera: litera C prima add. T       grossa debet tr. V       grossa: crossa PT crosa M       ut: in PT       causa: causali PT       dicxi M       grossam: crossam PT crosam M       uidebitur: uidetur C
[8b.11] Vnde innuitur, quod particularis sensus locutionis sit antea perfinitus, propter quod uidetur, quod participium illud expectet exigentiam a uerbo subsequenti et non a precedenti. Et nota, quod omnis dictio, que ab alia exigitur, debet esse cum exigente dictione in eadem clausula et numquam punctus planus inter exigentem et rectam consistere debet.
quod...quod om. PT       exigente: exigi V       eodem PT       inter planus tr. M
[8b.12] Post "Statuentes" infra fit processus, ut "quecumque bona quascumque possessiones|[21va] hactenus possedistis aut in futuris dante Domino rationabiliter acquiretis, firma uobis et illibata permaneant et robore apostolico stabilita." Diuersificat enim in subsequentibus concessiones, quas facit secundum dignitates et merita personarum, specificando iurisdictiones spirituales et temporales illius uel illorum, quibus priuilegia concedit, ut:
infra fit: ita sit C       bona quascumque (quecumque C) om. PT       actenus MPT       possidetis T       aut: ut C       apostolico legi: apostolice codd       concedit: patriarchis et archiepiscopis concedit add. PC
[8b.13]"Liceat eis conficere crisma oleum sanctum, ecclesias in suo patriarchatu uel archiepiscopatu et episcopos consecrare, excommunicare delinquentes et absoluere illosab excommunicatione, si respicere uoluerint," nisi forte sint exempti ab eorum iurisdictione per speciale priuilegium, "ordinare clericos, assignareprebendas"101 et alia multa, que hic nominare uel specificare me non oportet, quia quilibet dictator in diuersis mundi partibus innumerabilia poterit priuilegia uidere.102
illos--respicere om. PT       sint: ex eorum add. P       assignare: uel add. PT
[8b.14] Hoc autem totum episcopis concedit, preterquam episcopos consecrare.

[8b.15] Verumtamen in omnibus priuilegiis dicit "saluo in omnibus iure ecclesie Romane", nisi fecerit priuilegium illis, qui sibi subsunt, aliis mediantibus, sicut Bononiensi episcopo, qui subest pape, mediante Rauennate archiepiscopo, et tunc dicit "saluo iure Rauennatis ecclesie" uel "ecclesie metropolitane".103

fecerint C
[8b.16] Et sic de omnibus est intelligendum: Claraualenses, Vallis Vmbrosianos, Camaldulenses et infinitas|[72va] abbatias, templarios et hospitalarios Ierosolimitanos, quasdam canonicas regulares, quedam cenobia monialium, quasdam plebes et etiam capellas per diuersas mundi partes constitutas eximit ab omni patriarcharum, archiepiscoporum et episcoporum iurisdictione. Exemptum est enim hospitale de Alto Pascio104 et multe domus hospitales per mundum constitute.
templarios: temporales M       quedam: que C       patriarcharum tr. M post eximit       est om. PT       Pascio: Passio TC praem. pa M       et om. M       domus om. PT
[8b.17] Sunt etiam quedam ecclesie censuales, in quarum priuilegiis census quantitas continetur.105

[8b.18] Et nota, quod omnes ecclesie siue domus hospitales, que taliter sunt exempte, appellantur "speciales ecclesie Romane filie", alie uero sunt "generales", quibus, si quandoque priuilegium concedit, semper iuxta finem dicit "saluo iure diocesiani episcopi". Preterea illi, qui priuilegium acquirunt, faciunt expressis uocabulis spirituales et temporales iurisdictiones in suis priuilegiis propriis uocabulis exprimi, ut eorum iura fortius roborentur.

que taliter repit. T       appellatur C       diocesiano episcopo Cac
[8b.19] Nam primo in genere dicitur "quecumque bona quascumque possessiones", in alia uero clausula subinfertur, ut omnia maius robur suscipiant, "ea propriis duximus uocabulis expremenda."106 Postmodum nominantur singula per ordinem et sic successiuis clausulis fit de qualibet iurisdictione mentio specialis, usque ad illam clausulam, que sic incipit: "Si qua igitur in futurum ecclesiastica secularisue persona etc."
dicitur in genere tr. C       ut: autem add. codd       omnia om. PT       mentio specialis: specialis nominatio C       qua: Signa C       secularisue: secularis sue P seculari sue T
[8b.20] Set est notandum, quod semper spiritualia iura et illa uidelicet, que maiorem continent inter spiritualia dignitatem, sunt in specialis narrationis principio narranda, quia quod dignius est, premitti merito debet.107
continet tr. C post spiritualia       narranda: ponenda C
[8b.21] Premittenda igitur sunt consecratio, celebratio diuinorum officiorum, sepultura, libertas electionis, conficere crisma et oleum sanctum, ligandi et soluendi potestas, recipere clericos et laicos ad conuersionem de seculo fugientes absque alicuius contradictione, decime, primitie et similia dummodo reddantur singula singulis.
sunt igitur tr. CM       sepultura: libera praem. C
[8b.22] Postmodum autem specificantur et nominantur in priuilegiis patriarcharum illorum, scilicet qui archiepiscopus habent sub se archiepiscopatus hoc modo: "Concedimus tibi et tuis successoribus Cesariensem et Tironensem108 archiepiscopatum cum omnibus pertinentiis suis."
Celariensem PT Cesariensum M illeg. V Cessariensem C       archiepiscopatum: Tironensiem P Tyronemsem C
[8b.23] Archiepiscopis concedit episcopatus eodem modo et dicit "Cremonensem109 episcopatum cum omnibus pertinentiis suis."
episcopatus: episcopatum C       dicit: dicunt C       Cremonensum M       episcopatum: episcopatus PT       suis tr. C post Episcopis
[8b.24] Episcopis concedit plebes abbatias et canonicas et dicit "plebem sancti Gauini110 cum omnibus pertinentiis suis" et connumerantur omnia, sicut <in> ipsis priuilegiis poteris uidere.
sancti: san C       et om. M
[8b.25] Subsequenter uero ponantur et specificentur possessiones temporales propriis uocabulis uidelicet: "castella, uillas, siluas, piscationes, paludes, pensiones, predia, redditus annuales, loca culta et inculta."111  De quibus non uidetur, quod priuilegium facere posset, quia per iura regum possidentur possessiones.112
Subsequenti C       piscatores C       predia: presidia T       redditus C: siluas praem. MVPT       non om. C
[8b.26] Ad hoc est dicendum, quod omnibus uiris ecclesiasticis de prediis et uniuersis possessionibus temporalibus principaliter imperatores et reges et papa secundario priuilegium facere possunt.
uiris: iuris PC illeg. V
[8b.27] Nam quando auctoritas spiritualis et temporalis in unum conueniunt,113 ius recipientis multimode roboratur. Verumtamen potest papa tam clericis quam laicis de possessionibus, que ad ius beati Petri114 spectant, principaliter priuilegium facere.
spiritualis et temporalis: spiritualiter et temporaliter PT       spectant: spectantur T expectant V
[8b.28] Nominatis tandem singulis, dicit papa in penultima clausula ita: "Si qua igitur in futurum ecclesiastica secularisue persona hanc nostre constitutionis paginam sciens etc."115 usque ad "diuine ultioni subiaceat." Et est hec clausula quedam excommunicationis species, quam uix aut numquam uariant dictatores curie Romane.116
tandem: tam de PT       penulltima V penultimas P       secularisue: secularis sue T Pac (secularia T) secularis ut C       hanc: anc M       subiaceant C subiacet PT       quam uix: quamuis CPT       aut: autem CT       uarieant Vac
[8b.29] In ultima uero|[22rb] clausula dicitur: "Cunctis autem eidem etc."117 usque ad "premia eterne pacis inueniant. Amen." Et est ista clausula finalis118 quedam species benedictionis, que similiter non uariatur. Et rarissime uariantur dictamina in priuilegiis, confirmationibus et epistolis ecclesie Romane. Et licet quandoque uerba in forma illa quodammodo permutentur, eius tamen modus unicus et inuariabilis est.
autem: habet P habent T       est tr. C post finalis       priuilegiis: et add. C       epistolis C       verba: uerbo C       permutentur: permittentur C
[8b.30] Set egregrii dictatores tam in eadem forma quam in omnibus egregrie uariant et picturando119 ex mirificis distinctionibus clausulas ita dictamina exornant, quod semper apud eos|[72vb] uetera esse noua uidentur120 et tam bona quam mala dictamina sunt illis egregia exempla.
egregrii: et gregii V       egregrie: egregie C       dictamina: dictas T dicta P       exornant: exhornant V       noua esse tr. C
[8b.31] Set rarissime fuerunt omni tempore aues in terra,121 que sic scirent sumere de diuersis uoluminibus escam.
scirent: sirent T       escam: eadem PT
[8b.32] Alii uero, cum proborum dictamina reuoluere nituntur, in positione aut permutatione unius dictionis asininam ruditatem apertissime demonstrant, quod pauci discernere sueuerunt. Faciunt tamen pro temporali salute, quod possunt, nec essent per hoc plurimum reprehendendi,122 nisi ascriberent sibi gloriam aliorum,123 quia non est hoc donum omnibus diuinitus collatum.
aut: autem V       asininam: assignando PT assumam C       consueuerunt C       per: propter C       reprehendi P reprendendi M       est om. T tr. P post diuinitus
[8b.33] Set sunt hodie quamplures, qui aliorum summas et dictamina in unum fasciculum conglomerant, hinc et inde turpiter depilantes, et sic furtiuam de alieno uellere faciunt capam,124 dicentes "Hanc fecimus summam" et "Hunc fecimus librum."125
faxiculum C       conglomerant: et add. Tac       depillantes C       cappam MC
[8b.34] Set deberent, sicut in quadam oratione rethorica dixi,126 quilibet inuentores argumentose apis imitari uestigia, que, cum ad florem cuiuslibet herbe accedit, de ipsius humoris rectitudine ita prelibat, quod nec florem corrumpit et suum opus dulce pariter ac utile laudabiliter perficit.127
deberent: debent C       dicxi M       apis: aperis M       que cum ad: que ad eum PT ad que cum M       humoris: humoribus T humeris M       rectitudine CV: teneritudine M temeritudinis TP       prelibat: plicat T plidat P       corrumpit: corrumpunt M       opus: corpus M

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94 Boncompagno treats the signa narrationis in Notule auree 10 and below, Oliva cc. 18, 34. Cf. also Tractatus virtutum §8-§9 and Mirra 10.1, 11.1. His Breviloquium treats initia dicendorum, not only of preambles, but also of narrations and petitions. For the signa conclusionis, see Gaufredus of Vinsauf Summa de arte dictandi 4.3, ed. VINCENZO LICITRA "La Summa de arte dictandi di Maestro Goffredo" Studi Medievali3 7 (1966) 865-913 at 909; Gaufredus disparages the idea of a signum narrationis at 3.1 (LICITRA ed. 900-901) without using that term.

95 The ideal of copia dicendi was announced already at the beginning of the earliest Latin treatise on rhetoric: Rhetorica ad Herennium 1.1, see also De Inventione 1.3. In the De obsidione Ancone the legist Martinus Gosia is described as possessing a copia legum, 1.16.3, on which see also HERMANN KANTOROWICZ Studies in the Glossators of the Roman Law (Cambridge 1938) 96-7. In several notulae of the Boncompagnus the reader is assured that this volume contains a copiosam materiam (or doctrinam) for rhetorical invention (1.10.6, 1.14.3, 1.16.5, 1.18.10, 1.24.11, 6.10.18). But here and below at Oliva 21.1, 25.3, Boncompagno suggests that dictators strive for the appearance of copiousness; a similar accent is struck at Boncompagnus 1.25.2 and 5.20.10.

96 The explanation offered here for the Oliva's meager discussion of the narratio fails to convince. The reference to secular privileges without narrationes seems out of place, and unfounded. Rather more to the point is Isagoge 2.19, which advises that a preamble is unnecessary when a greater person writes to a lesser one; contemporary mandates and letters to subjects by emperors and kings often omit a preamble.

97 The hospital of S. Jacob's of Altopassu was located on the pilgrim's road (Via Francigena), east of Lucca.

98 This standard feature of papal charters is also treated in Notule auree 18 and Palma 44.

99 Boncompagno refers here to his Palma cc. 34-49. Punctuation is also also treated in Tractatus virtutum §30, §58, Notule auree 12, 17, 21, Rhetorica novissima 2.2 and below, Oliva 10.20. Some ancient and medieval texts on punctuation have been compiled in "Corpus stigmalologicum minus" ed. M. HUBERT, ALMA 37 (1970) 5-171 (this passage not included). One of the most useful recent studies of Latin punctuation is ERIKA EISENLOHR "Kola und Kommata von Hieronymus zum Evangeliar Heinrichs des Löwen" in PETER RüCK ed. Mabillons Spur: Zweiundzwanzig Miszellen aus dem Fachgebiet für Historische Hilfswissenschaften der Philipps-Universität Marburg, zum 80. Geburtstag von Walter Heinemeyer (Marburg 1992) 105-132.

100 On the capitalization of 'Statuentes' in papal charters, see REGINALD L. POOLE, Lectures on the History of the Papal Chancery (Cambridge 1915) 45 and literature there cited.

101 A model confirmation of a prebend is given below, Oliva 56.4.

102 Boncompagno's teaching style oscillates between prescriptive and descriptive, between theoretical and empirical. He returns to the latter pole here, but rather than making appeal to specific models and Vorurkunden, he here envisions an itinerant student of diplomatic, a connoisseur of charters. See above, Oliva 7.8, note 67.

103 IP 5.247-8 no. 12 (JL 4847), 5.252 no. 30 (JL 11643) have only papal reservation clauses, none for the archbishop of Ravenna. On the reservation (salvo) clause, see below, Oliva 18.15-18, 34.8, 34.22, 36.11, 38.5.

104 For the hospital of S. Jacob's of Altopassu, located on the pilgrim's road (Via Francigena) east of Lucca, see above, Oliva 8b.9. Boncompagno's home town, Signa, had two important bridges over the Arno river, and thus may have had a Hospitallers house. .

105 For the distinction between churches paying census with exempt houses, see MICHELE MACCARRONE "Primato Romano e monasteri dal principio del secolo XII ad Innocenzo III" in Istituzioni monastiche e istituzioni canonicali in occidente (1123-1215) (Milan 1980) 49-132.

106 MICHAEL TANGL Päpstlichen Kanzleiordnungen von 1200-1500 (Innsbruck 1894) 229 no. 5.

107 This fundamental precept of rhetoric, 'premittere maiorem', is found throughout Boncompagno's works. On the definition of spiritualia, see above, Oliva 7.6.

108 Although Caesarea was indeed a suffragan archbishopric of the patriarchal see of Jerusalem, Tyre was normally subject to the patriarch of Antioch (Radulphus II 1188-1200, Petrus 1201-1208). The church of Tyre also appears below, Oliva 10.17, 10.21, 18.16, 37.6. For the dispute between Jerusalem and Antioch over the see of Tyre, see RUDOLF HIESTAND and HANS EBERHARD MAYER "Die Nachfolge des Patriarchen Monarchus von Jerusalem" Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde 74 (1974) 109-130 and J.G. ROWE "The Papacy and the ecclesiastical province of Tyre (1100-1187)" Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 43 (1960/61) 160-189. In general, see GIORGIO FEDALTO La chiesa latina in Oriente 1.234 (1981), 2.60 (1976).

109 Cremona was a suffragen diocese of the archbishop of Milan. Privileges for the archepiscopal see of Milan: Alexander III, 14 October 1162 (IP 6.1.62, no. 177, ed. PL 200.174); Celestine III, 16 June 1193 (deperdita, IP 6.1.66, no. *200); Innocent III XXX; Honorius III (Po. 6124)

110 S. Gavin's parish is located on the road which leads from Florence to Bologna, in the northern part of the diocese of Florence. More precisely: at the upper reaches of the river Sieve, near the village of Montecarelli and before the Futa pass.

111 For the appurtenance formula: DIETRICH LOHRMANN "Formen der Enumeratio bonorum in Bischofs-, Papst- und Herrscherurkunden (9.-12. Jahrhundert)" Archiv für Diplomatik 26 (1980) 281-311.

112 The idea that legitimate title stems from royal dispensation also appears below, Oliva 51.2. See also below, Oliva34.3.

113 Cf. below, Oliva 10.2, for a view stressing more distinct separation of lay and ecclesiastical priniciples. The pope, who can grant privileges principaliter, was able to grant privileges concerning temporalities in the patrimonium S. Petri. Other prelates, even patriarchs, had no such right in their territories.

114 See below, Oliva 18.14, where a patriarch's privilege has only the strengthening function, a favorable assent to the recipient's rights and possessions, without actually granting those. These two passages were pointed to exemplify the difference between plenitudo potestatis and pars sollicitudinis (see above Oliva 1.8), in the concrete instance of the privilege-making power. On Innocent III's Rekuperationspolitik for recovery of the ius beati Petri: J. SEEGER Die Reorganisation des Kirchenstaates unter Innocenz III. Grundlagen und Durchführung (Kiel 1937) 31ff. and CHRISTIAN LACKNER "Studien zur Verwaltung des Kirchestaates unter Papst Innocenz III" RHM 29 (1987) 127-214.

115 MICHAEL TANGL Päpstlichen Kanzleiordnungen von 1200-1500 (Innsbruck 1894) 232 no. 24. The negative papal sanctio is completed as follows: [...contra eam temere venire temptaverit, secundo tertiove commonita, nisi reatum suum congrua satisfactione correxit, potestatis honorisque sui careat dignitate reamque se divino iudicio existere de perpetrata iniquitate cognoscat et a sacratissimo corpore et sanguine Dei et Domini redemptoris nostri Iesu Christi aliena fiat atque in extremo examine] districte subiaceat ultioni. For a lengthy logical analysis of the spiritual sanctions in ecclesiastical privileges, see below Oliva 18.19-27.

116 For literature and analysis, see STEVEN WIGHT "The Gregorian Sanctio" (typescript, UCLA History Seminar, 1984).

117 MICHAEL TANGL Päpstlichen Kanzleiordnungen von 1200-1500 (Innsbruck 1894) 232 no. 25. The positive papal sanctio is completed by: [...loco sua iura servantibus sit pax Domini nostri Iesu Christi, quatenus et hic fructum bone actionis percipiant et apud districtum iudicem] premia eterne pacis inveniant. Amen.

118 On the clausula finalis, see Palma 49.

119 See Liber de obsidione Ancone 23 (ZIMOLO ed. 42.14-43.4). For other usage of picturare, see above Oliva 1.3, below 39.1. For analysis, see DANIELA GOLDIN B come Boncompagno (Padua 1988).

120 For the emphasis on the rejuvenative role of literature in France, see FRANZ JOSEF WORSTBROCK "Die Frühzeit der Ars dictandi in Frankreich" in Pragmatische Schriftlichkeit im Mittelalter: Erscheinungsformen und Entwicklungsstufen. Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums 17.-19. Mai 1989 edd. HAGEN KELLER, KLAUS GRUBMüLLER and NIKOLAUS STAUBACH (München 1992, Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften, Bd. 65) 131-156 at 151.

121 Juvenal 6.165. See Liber de obsidione Ancone 13 (ZIMOLO ed. 33.17-18, 41.25-42.2); Quinque tabule salutationum 2.17 (Sunt autem quidam bipedes yrci...).

122 Cf. Alexander Neckam In Ecclesiasten 2.5 (Cambridge, Trinity College R.16.4, fol. 190va): Absit, ut doctores liberalium artium reprehendam, qui nonnumquam exercitio laboris sui rei familiaris excludunt inopiam. But see above, Oliva 7.8 and De obsidione Ancone prol. 3: Ego vero non pro temporali munere seu levitate animi, set sola veritate, que numquam vincitur, inductus, de obsidione predicta et magnanimitate vestra scribere procuravi.

123 Cf. Alexander Neckam De naturis rerum 1.2 (WRIGHT ed. 16-17): Opuscula itque nostra alienum nolo laudare auctorem, memor furti Theodectis discipuli Aristotelis, qui Rhetoricam editam ab Aristotele surripiens, gloriam tam subtilis operis in se transfundere voluit, unius nomine mutatione...Perventum est autem quadam die ad tractatum difficilem, quem Aristotles dilucidius explanaverat in Rhetorica, quam sibi ascripsit Theodectes... See below, Oliva 17.2.

124 For other comparisons between weaving and literary creation, see above, Oliva 1.2 and Palma 24.

125 For the problem of plagiarism and unauthorized publication at Bologna, see the 1274 Bolognese university statutes (ed. BOHACEK De officio stationariorum 5): Item statuimus, quod nullus stationarius opus det aliquod ad exemplar sub nomine alicuius doctoris, nisi quod ipsemet doctor, qui dicetur hoc fecisse preconicari per scolas publice, faciat qualiter recognoscit illud opus suum esse et sibi placere, quod detur ad exemplar. Et si quis contra fecerit, penis dictis superius puniatur. Tancred wrote in the prologue to his apparatus to Comp. III (SAVIGNY 3.558, from SARTI I.257 and II.32): Primas et secundas decretales, prout melius potuit, glossulavi; sed super presentia tertia compilatione non apparatum feci, sed audiendo atque legendo quaedam in libro notavi, quae scholares quidem absque conscientia mea de libro meo extraxerunt, et pro apparatu tertiarum illum michi intitulaverunt. Nunc autem...presentem tertiam compilationem..glossabo et constitutiones concilii proxime celebrati et iura a domino Innocentio Papa III post XII annos edita, tam in apparatibus a me factis, quam in hoc quem indicare dispono, diligentissime collocabo.

126 Boncompagno purports to quote here from a 'rhetorical oration', that is, from a speech he had made. The adjective 'rhetorical' is added to distinguish 'oration' from 'prayer', two possible meanings of oratio.

127 Cf. Seneca Epistulae morales 84.3 and see also Boncompagnus prol. 3.16, Rhetorica novissima 2.2.10. On the bee metaphor, see JüRGEN VON STACKELBERG "Das Bienengleichnis. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der literarischen Imitatio" Römanische Forschungen 68 (1956) 271-293 and JACQUELINE HAMESSE, "Le vocabulaire des florileges medievaux" in Methodes et instruments du travail intellectuel au moyen age: Etudes sur le vocabulaire ed. OLGA WEIJERS (Turnhout 1990) 209-230.


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© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998
Scrineum© Università di Pavia 1999