Oliva 9 
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[9. QVE IBI PONVNTVR SIGNA ET SVBSCRIPTIONES]

[9.1] Priuilegia siquidem roborantur per signa, per subscriptionem, etiam per appositionem bulle uel sigilli. Nam quicumque priuilegia concedunt, ponunt in fine priuilegiorum propria signa et proprium sigillum et fit in eisdem subscriptio secundum uarietatem personarum.
rubr. supplevi ex V (supra 8a)       signa: singna V       etiam om. PTC
[9.2] Dominus equidem papa in suis priuilegiis talia signa omni tempore ponit et inter illa duo signa, que primo ponuntur, talem facit subscriptionem. Tertium uero signum ita postea formatur, sicut potes inferius uidere: <...>.128|[22va]
duo C: om. MVPT       primo C: om. MVPT       faciat C       uero om. V       ita: potest add. Vac
[9.3] Positis uero per ordinem signis et facta ipsius pape subscriptione, subscribunt episcopi cardinales et postmodum alii, secundum quod est ecclesie Romane consuetudo.129
episcopi: ipsi C
[9.4] Et credo, quod episcopus ille, qui est maior inter episcopos cardinales, <primo> subscribit uel subscribere debet, idest Hostiensis episcopus, et dicit ita in subscriptione: "Ego Octauianus130 Hostiensis et Vellarensis episcopus", quia duos habet modo episcopatus. Et postea facit signum suum et non ponit ibi aliquod uerbum, set signum loco uerbi. Et post illum subscribunt episcopi cardinales.
episcopos: ipsos C       Octauianus: Actauiantis V       uerbum: et post illum subscribunt episcopi cardinales add. M
[9.5] Postmodum uero subscribit prior presbyterorum cardinalium. Et postea omnes presbyteri cardinales, post illos autem subscribit prior diaconorum cardinalium, postmodum alii. Et nota hic et in superiori, hoc nomen "prior" <significat> officium et non tempus et sic|[73ra] "prior" non ponitur hic comparatiue,131 immo est nomen officii.132
Postmodum: Post illum PT       prior--subscribit om. M per homoioteleuton       cardinalium: et post illum subscribunt episcopi cardinales add. V et add. C       sic: sicut C       non om. C       hic: ibi T om. MC
[9.6] Et licet diuersa sint subscribentium signa, tamen quodlibet signum gerit officium uerbi, si uerbum ibi non fuerit, et exigit premissos nominatiuos, licet tale signum ad aliud fuerit repertum. Et potest denotare duo tempora, uidelicet preteritum et presens, ut "subscribo" uel "subscripsi".
subscribentium: subscriptionum C       nominatiuos: no~t~os VTC nostros P
[9.7] Vel posset dici, quod illud non sit signum nec sit aliquid positum loco alicuius signi, set duo ".S.", hoc modo titulata SS et quadam circumuolutione interserta et ponuntur pro "subscribo" uel "subscripsi", quia tabelliones ista duo SS intricata ponunt in publicis instrumentis pro uerbo|[22vb] et nichilominus dimittunt signum proprium, quod in cirographis133 ponere consueuerunt.
set: sunt add. MC       titulata SS:-duo SS om. C perhomoioteleuton       titulata SS: SS om. MPT (M ibihabetspatiumsigno)       duo SS: sunt PT om. M (M ibi habet spatiumsigno)       intricata: trincata C       pro uerbo om. C       proprium quod--illud signum (9.8) om. C
[9.8] Sed credo, quod illud signum uel ista duo SS taliter intricata gerant (ubi uerbum non ponitur) duplex officium, uerbi uidelicet et signi, quia in multis priuilegiis uidi, quod uerbum totum scribebatur et postmodum talia SS circumuoluta post uerbum loco signi posita erant.134
SS: similiter PT om. MC       ubi: sibi T ibi P       uidi: uidebis T uid P      SS: scripta PT signa C om. M       loco signi: signum V
[9.9] Quidam etiam post uerbum faciunt crucem punctatam135 uel aliquem caracterem. Posset etiam dici, quod tale signum ponatur pro manu subscribentis et est hoc rei ueritas. Vnde subscribentibus quandoque dicitur, "Faciatis hic manum uestram" et tabelliones tale signum "manum suam" nominant. Vnde iam uidi quosdam, qui manum in publicis instrumentis pingebant.136
tabeliones TC       in: etiam PT
[9.10] Et in fine instrumentorum in pluribus partibus dicunt signa "manum Martini" et faciunt ista duo SS intricata pro manu illius, qui hoc instrumentum fieri rogauit.137
SS:scripta PT om. M signa C       intricata: trincata C       illius C: om. MVPT
[9.11] Nam in omnibus ecclesiis collegiatis, si prelati et subditi faciunt aliquam uenditionem, eodem uel simili modo subscribunt in instrumento uenditionis et ponunt predictum signum uel forte alium secundum consuetudines terrarum. Vnde in plurimis Ytalie partibus uulgo dicitur "Ille in carta subscripsit et fecit ibi manum suam."
simili: consimili C       ponunt: ibi add. C       consuetudinem C
[9.12] Preterea nuntii Camaldulensium138 et Vallis Ombrosianorum139 portant per diuersas Ytalie partes breuia pro defunctis et eadem ecclesiis collegiatis exhibent, ut fiant orationes pro ipsis, in quibus est scriptum: "Obiit .Io.140 Pistoriensis episcopus", uel "archidiaconus" uel "dominus" siue "frater Martinus .VII. Kal. Martii",141 uel scribunt ita pro "obiit": Ø.
Vmbrosianorum PVC       Io om. C       Martinus: .M. V       scribit C       Ø: Secundum PT om. C
[9.13] Postmodum prelatus et canonici scribunt in quadam memoriali carta,142 quam nuntii portant: "ad canonicam sancti Pauli fui", uel "collegium ecclesie sancti Pauli uisitaui".|[23ra] Hec enim est uox nuntii,143 sed ipsi faciunt ibi predictum signum uel crucem punctatam uel consuetum illius ecclesie signum, ut uoci nuntiorum fides adhibeatur.
fui-Pauli om. PT       uisitaui: incitaui C
[9.14] Subscriptionibus rite peractis ponuntur ibi anni Dominice incarnationis et indictio, que illo tempore currit, ad denotandum temporis in quo fuerit priuilegium datum. Nominatur etiam ibi locus ubi sit priuilegium exhibitum ad maiorem certitudinem reddendam. Nam et quot annis iam papa resederit in apostolatus cathedra144 ibi ponitur ad certitudinis augmentum. Subscribitur in fine nomen cancelarii aut uicecancelarii, qui priuilegium dedit ad maiorem expressionem.
rite peractis: in eperactis V       anni: anno PT       incarnationis et: et om. M       iam om. C       apostolatus: apostolicis V appellatus CT       aut uicecancelarii om. V         dedit: dederit M
[9.15] Post hec omnia supponitur ibi apostolica bulla cum sericis filis, in qua impressa sunt apostolorum Petri et Pauli capita et eorumdem nomina cum quibusdam signis et punctis ex una parte. Ex alia uero ipsius pape nomen continetur cum punctis et signis.
sericis filis: sirecis filis T filiis PM       signis et punctis tr. MC       ex una: et praem. Vac cum punctis: cunctis V
[9.16] Sunt preterea tam in ipsa bulla quam in modis scribendi et dictandi priuilegia, confirmationes et epistolas quedam latencia signa, ex quorum augmento et diminutione iam multotiens cognoui falsarios comprehendi.145  De quibus signis tutius est silere quam loqui,146 quoniam quilibet Christianus tenetur ecclesiam Romanam diligere in omnibus|[73rb] et reuereri.147
epistolas C: epistole MVPT       falsarias V       comprehendi: et praem. MVPT       reueri P
[9.17] Quare autem sericum in priuilegiis et confirmationibus ponatur, non est inutile scire. Nam tribus de causis ibi ponitur sericum: causa discretionis, honoris, utilitatis. Discretionis, ut notetur differentia inter priuilegia uel confirmationes et epistolas; honoris, quia locus in quo digniora et desiderabiliora continentur, dignius est exornandus; utilitatis, quia sericum res durabilis est et uix aliqua consumitur uetustate.
ibi ponitur:imponitur C       honoris: et add. C       hutilitatis V       et epistolas honoris om. C       desiderabilia CVac
[9.18] Bulla etiam apostolica fit de plumbo causa multiplicis commoditatis. Nam plumbum facile malleatur. Vnde bullator148|[23rb] citius potest quaslibet expedire et bene in eo forma impremitur nec obstat uisui, quia est competentis coloris et est ualde conseruatum et inuariabile, nisi contundatur.149
quaslibet legi: quoslibet CMVPT       imprimitur TV       competentis: competentius M       contundatur: commendatur V comodatur PT
[9.19] Nam propter hoc expense plurime uitantur, quia si de cera fieret sigillum, triplicaretur expensa et forte in itinere uel alibi frangeretur, quod esset dolor intolerabilis illi, cuius negotium agebatur. Nam multotiens iam accidit de sigillis imperatoris et regum.150
uitantur om. C       si: sic C       triplicarentur C
[9.20] Nam de alio metallo fieri non posset absque grauamine magno. Aurum siquidem et argentum karissima sunt; stagnum nempe fetet nec est competentis coloris; es nempe atque auricalcum sunt cariora plumbo nec possent facile malleari. De argento uiuo nichil dicitur, quia de eo nulla posset questio exoriri.
carissima MC       Stannum P Stangnum M       nempe: neppe V       es: et PT       nempe: neppe V       adque V       auricallcum Vac
[9.21] Si queratur, "Quare dicatur bulla?", sic responderi potest. Bulla enim dicitur, quia sicut aurea uel argentea, enea uel ferrea, bulla res plures coniungit et in una facit congerie firmiter permanere, sic ista ex impressione manuali apostolorum capita cum quibusdem latentibus signis ex una parte ac nomen summi pontificis ex alia impressum presentat et facit mediante filo uel serico adherere. Posset etiam dici "bulla" propter quandam similitudinem, quoniam post malleationem ad modum bulle remanet rotunda.151
permanere: et add. M       ista om. C       quandam: quarumdam C       quoniam: quandoque C
[9.22] Si queretur, "Quare fit rotunda?", responderi potest, quod illa rotunditas continet misticum intellectum.152  Forma siquidem rotunda in lateribus non est elisa nec habet in se angulos, in quibus ualeat aliqua superfluitas contineri.153  Sic ergo Romana ecclesia esse debet uitiis omnibus expiata.

[9.23] Idem uidere potes, quod Romanorum imperatoris ymago sigillo imprimitur imperiali et in dextra154 manu tenet pilam|[23va] rotundam, ut per illam euidentius ostendatur, quod mundi monarchiam debeat optinere. Et scriptum est in sigillo: 'Roma caput mundi tenet orbis frena rotundi,'155 quod Alexander Phillipi Macedo Dario regi Persarum taliter soluisse uidetur:156 "Per pilam siquidem, quam michi transmittere uoluisti, manifeste intelligo, quod toti orbi debeo preesse."157

tenet om. MVPT       et scriptum--rotundi C: om. MVPT       quod C: Nam MV Nam quod PT       siquidem om. C       orbi toti tr. VPT
[9.24] Nam orbis licet sit quadrangulus, ipsa tamen quadragulatio rotunda esse describitur.158  A simili ergo, sicut imperator per illam rotunditatem innuit esse dominus orbis in temporalibus,159 ita papa per sue bulle rotunditatem in spiritualibus orbi uniuerso preesse uidetur.
sit om. C       quadrangulatio MC       innuit--temporalibus om. V       ita: et praem. M       per--rotunditatem om. V       uidetur add. Ppcin margine
[9.25] Porro etsi alia rotunda inueniatur, ille tamen rotunditates non habent aliquid significare, nisi uelut rote curruum et pile puerorum.159a  Puncta namque ipsi bulle propterea imprimuntur, ut apostolorum capitibus et pape nomini pressent ornatum. Profecto pictores et sculptores semper faciunt quendam circa uertices ymaginum apparatum causa honoris.
etsi: si C       rote: recote Vac       currum: curtuum V       capitibus om. C       hornatum MT
[9.26] Vel puncta ideo fiunt, ut falsariorum malitia cognoscatur, quoniam in punctis ipsis quedam signa continentur, que non duxi per singula explanare.160

[9.27] Idem, si queratur "Quare filum usualium epistolarum sit de campe?",161 respondendum est, quod tale filum non est frangibile et haberi potest pro precio competenti.

respondendum: respondebam P       est: sit C

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128 Scribal ommissions and errors in the Oliva's transmission have partially obscured Boncompagno's intentions. The archtype probably included (Oliva 9.2-9) other papal signa, e.g. after each 'talis', 'talem' or 'taliter'. On the papal rota, see HEINZ HARTMANN "Über die Entwicklung der Rota" Archiv für Urkundenforschung 16 (1942) 385-412. For Boncompagno's suspicions about scribes, see above, Oliva 1.12. The prologue of the Boncompagnus deals with its author's fear for the fate of his literary offspring.

129 For an argument against the majestic plural made by reference to the subscribing customs of the Roman curia, see Tractatus virtutum §46-§47, RUDOLF HIESTAND "Feierliche Privilegien mit divergierenden Kardinalslisten?" Archiv für Diplomatik 33 (1987) 239-268 and WERNER MALECZEK Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191-1216 (Vienna 1984) 359-392.

130 Octavianus, cardinal bishop of Ostia and Velletri (1189-1206). For a thumbnail biography, WERNER MALECZEK Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 (Wien 1984) 80-83. Cf. Martini Oppaviensis Chronicon MGH SS 29.407.18-19: Sunt autem episcopi septem secundum primitivam institutionem: videlicet Hostiensis, qui propter pape consecrationem dignior est aliis et palleo utitur...

131 Although primarily correct, the rigor of Boncompagno's argument somewhat misleads. Just as bishops receive priority in their province from the length of time in office, so the order of cardinals in the subscriptions is made 'nach dem Prinzip der Anciennität und eine scharfe Trennung der drei ordines' (HIESTAND, as above in note 129, p. 240). For the term prior: ANNE-MARIE BAUTIER "De prepositus a prior, de cella a prioratus: evolution linquistique et genese d'une institution" in Prieurs et prieures dans l'occident medieval ed. JEAN-LOUP LEMAITRE (Geneva 1987) 1-21 and Boncompagnus 3.4.2 §2, 5.2.10, 5.9.3.

132 For an opposite argument about the petitionarii, see Boncompagnus 3.20.44.

133 Boncompagno follows the ancient Roman tradition, still apparently strong in Italy, of associating the signum with a chirographus, rather that defining the latter as a divided charter. WINIFRIED TRUSEN "Cirographum und Teilurkunde im Mittelalter" Archivalische Zeitschrift 75 (1979) 233-249, determined that according to medieval usage they are two different things, despite the diplomatists' conflation of them since the days of MABILLON, a conflation which became canonical when BRESSLAU repeated it. See also: MICHEL PARISSE "Remarques sur les chirographes et les chartes-parties antérieurs a 1120 et conservés en France" Archiv für Diplomatik 32 (1986) 546-567. Boncompagno discusses the divided charter at Boncompagnus 6.14.2. As Palma 8 makes clear (Epistolaest cirografus absenti persone destinatus...), cirographus is not a divided charter.

134 Following his method of separating reason from custom in chancery practices, here Boncompagno seeks to distinguish a abbreviation composed of stylized letters (a logical-grammatical sign) from a graphic symbol. See BEATRICE FRAENKEL La signature: Genèse d'un signe (Paris 1992).

135 For another 'pointed cross', see below, Oliva 10.4; for a littera punctata, see Oliva 19.5.

136 Another example of Boncompagno's empiricism, as above Oliva 9.8 and below 9.16. For a letter which refers to a painted signum, see Boncompagnus 1.23.13. On this general phenomena, see GIOVANNA PETRONIO NICOLAII "Il signum dei tabellioni romani: simbologia o realta giuridica?" XXX 7-40.

137 See G. CENCETTI "La rogatio nelle carte bolognesi. Contributo allo studio del documento notarile italiano nei secoli X-XIII" AMPR n.s. 7 (1960) 17-150.

138 For necrology of Camaldulensian order, see GIOVANNI B. MITTARELLI and ANSELMO COSTADONI Annales Camaldulenses (Venice 1762) 7, Appendix col. 371ff.

139 See Redactio Vallumbrosana saec. XII. 'Cap. IX. De breui et agenda mortuorum' in Corpus Consuetudinum Monasticarum 4 ed. KASSIUS HALLINGER (Siegburg 1983) 372: Tunc in capitulum omnes redeuntes, quod pro fratre defuncto agere debeant, ordinent et id deuote perficiant. In ipso uero die, si fieri potest, per cuncta monasteria transmittantur brevicula. Cum igitur ad unumquodque monasterium litterae obitum fratris nunciantes fuerint dilate, ilico omnia signa pulsentur. Quibus auditis in aecclesia omnes conueniunt et Uigiliam et Matutinum atque missam et Uesperum summa cum devotione peragant, si tempus permiserit. Si uero aut tardior hora uel ineuitabile impedimentum que superius dicta sunt facere prohibuerit, hos quinque dicant psalmos in uicem ad unumquemque genua flectentes, nisi fuerit festiuus dies, et Requiem aeternam dicentes, scilicet: Verba mea. Domine ne in furore tuo I. Dilexi quoniam. Credidi propter. De profundis. [Psalms 5, 6, 114, 115, 129] Hoc uero ante omnia studiose prouideatur, ne negligentia de dirigendis breuiculis habeatur sed per nuntium certum dirigantur. Nomen defuncti in unoqueque monasterio in matricula scribatur. Uictus fratris unius diei pro eo paupteribus impendatur. Tres quidem integrae Uigiliae in unoquoque cenobio pro ipso, in die uidelicet quo breuiculus recipitur una, in septimo alia, in tregesimo , tercia. Et si fuerit possibile, septem speciales pro eo fiant missae. Ceterum usque ad diem trigesimum commemoretur in omnibus officiis Mortuorum et ab unoquoque fratre duo psalterio dicantur, uidelicet decem psalmos per dies. In loco uib obiit usque ad diem tricesimum portio uictus et potus, quam ipse haberet si uiueret, ponatur in mensa ad locum suae sessionis et pauperibus distribuatur. Et omni anniuersarii die pro eo fiat similiter in eodem loco... --- For comparison, see also Consuetudines Beccenses 'Cap. XXV. De agendis mortuorum et de breuibus' and 'Cap. XXVII. De commemoratione fraternitatis' ed. MARIE PASCAL DICKSON OSB in Corpus Consuetudinum monasticarum 4 (Siegburg 1967) 205-111, 216-8 and Regularis Concordiae Anglicae Nationis [ca. 972] 'De breui [mortuorum]' edd. THOMAS SYMONS, SIGRID SPATH, MARIA WEGENER and KASSIUS HALLINGER in Corpus Consuetudinum monasticarum 7 (Siegburg 1984) 143. --- Boncompagno also briefly refers to the 'breuia pro defunctis' in Tractatus virtutum §5; examples of these are given at Isagoge 3.70-72. Not only at the end of his life, when he wrote De malo senectutis et senii, but also throughout his writing career, he demonstrated a marked interest in matters related to final things: old age, death, funerals and burials. See e.g. Boncompagnus titles 1.25 (DE CONSOLATIONIBUS) 1.26 (DE CONSUETUDINIBUS PLANGENTIUM) and 1.27 (DE CONSUETUDINIBUS SEPELIENTIUM).

140 Johannes I, bishop of Pistoia and Prado (ca 700), or Johannes II (951-985). Contemporary bishops of Pistoia and Prado: Rainaldus de Guidi (Vallombr., 1167-1189), Bonus (1189-January 28 1208).

141 February 23 was the feast of Peter Damiani, cardinal bishop of Ostia (died 22 Febuary 1072). Damiani was the most famous saint of the Camaldolese order and perhaps the greatest Italian epistolary stylist of the eleventh century.

142 This 'quadam memoriali carta' is here clearly distinguished from the 'brevia pro defunctis' described above and thus should not be confused with either encyclical letters or mortuary rolls. On those see N. HUYGHEBAERT Le documents necrologiques Typologies des sources du moyen age occidental 4 (Brepols 1972) 10-11, 26-32, who says (27) that rotuli were not used in Italy. Neither rolls nor encyclical letters are mentioned in the most recent study, THOMAS FRANK Studien zu italienischen Memorialzeugnissen des XI. und XII. Jahrhunderts Arbeiten zur Frühmittelalterforschung 21 (Berlin-NewYork 1991), although FRANK devotes portions of his introduction to terminological problems (1-4) and to a review of the literature and editions sources of Italian Memorialquellen (4-11). --- The 'carta memorialis' Boncompagno describes here seems rather to have been a separate and quite temporary written device to certify that the Vallumbrosian or Camaldolese messengers thoroughly executed their itinerary. To my knowledge, no such certifying documents have survived, nor are they prescribed in the monastic custumals (see previous note), although the procedure Boncompagno here describes may be of later date than the Redactio Vallumbrosana saec. XII. I have found not mention of this practice in Memoria-scholarship, for example in GERT MELVILLE, "Zur Funktion der Schriftlichkeit im institutionellen Gefüge mittelalterlicher Orden" Frühmittelalterliche Studien 25 (1991) 391-417. Without scholarly value is JEAN-CLAUDE KAHN Les moins messagers: la religion, le pouvoir et la science saisis par les rouleaux des morts, XIe-XIIe siecles (Paris: JC Lattes 1987).

143 Prelates of the house visited certified the visit by signing as the 'vox nuntii' (in the first person) for the messenger, who was presumeably illiterate. This terminology has biblical overtones: Ioh. 12.30, (cf. Is. 40.3) and Nah. 2.13; in general: Ioh. 1.1,23. Boncompagno generally uses vox to mean 'voice' (as opposed to 'word'), whether he is dealing with phonological, ethnological, ornithological, musical, rhetorical or legal subjects. See Boncompagnus 4.7.5, 5.1.24, 5.20.1 §16 and Prooemium Boncompagni ad Summam Institutionum Azonis. For the difference between the messenger and the message, see Palma cc. 9-11.

144 For a preamble 'In apostolatus cathedra...' see above, Oliva 7.10, below 17.3.

145 Boncompagno distinguishes the restricted scope in diplomatic of a standard rhetorical method (variation by amplification or diminution). Cf. Innocent III Licet ad regimen (Potthast 365, Sept. 1198; Comp. III. 5.11.2; X. 5.20.5): Sed hae duae species falsitatis non possunt facile comprehendi, nisi vel in modo dictaminis, vel in forma scripturae, vel qualitate chartae falsitas cognoscatur. For other papal decretals on forgery, see Liber X 5.20 (De crimine falsi), 1.3 (De rescriptis), 2.22 (De fide instrumentorum), also Die Register Innocenz III 1.83 and CHARLES DUGGAN "Improba pestis falsitatis. Forgeries and the problem forgery in twelfth-century decretal collections (with special reference to English cases)" in HORST FUHRMANN ed. Fälschungen im Mittelalter. Internationaler Kongress der MGH, München, 16.-19. September 1986 MGH Schriften 33, 4 volumes, (Hannover 1988) 2.319-362.

146 The artistry of a notorious forger of papal bulls is referred to with this same phrase in Boncompagnus 3.13.17.

147 A brevitas-transition is also motivated by the fear of revealing authenticating secrets of papal charters below, Oliva 9.26. This fear clearly distinguishes the possibilities of a medieval charter doctrine from modern diplomatic.

148 See M. TOSI "Bullaria e bullatores della Cancelleria Pontificia" Gli archivi italiani 4 (1917) XXX-XXX.

149 For a (supposed) seal matrix from the reign of Clement III, see SCHLOSSER, Jahrbuch der kunsthistorische Sammlungen des Kaiserhauses 13 (1892) 44, cited in LUDWIG SCHMITZ-RHEYDT "Ein Bullenstempel des Papstes Innocenz IV" MIOG 17 (1896) 64-71 at 66.

150 Cf. a diploma of emperor Henry VI for count Guido of Biandrate (BB 551), the confirmation of a privilege granted by Frederick Barbarossa to the count's father: non obstante, quod sigillum impressum cereum vetustate et fractura lesum periit et sigilli sollempntias defuit consueta, quoted in PETER CSENDES Die Kanzlei Heinrichs VI (Vienna 1981) 127. CSENDES notes that more than four-fifths of Henry's 27 gold seals were prepared for Italian recipients.

151 Cf. Isidore of Seville Etymologiae 19.31.11: bullae (scil.: dicta sunt), quod sint similes rotunditate bullis, quae in aqua vento inflantur.

152 Cf. Innocent III to King Richard of England, 29 May 1198, Die Register Innocenz III 1. 295-297 n. 206, at p. 296, describing the gift of a ring: ...in te volumus spiritualiter intelligere...ut misterium potius quam donum attendas. Rotunditas enim eternitatem significat, que initio caret et fine. Habet enim regalis prudentia, quid in annuli forma requirat, ut de terrenis transeat ad celestia, de temporalibus ad eterna procedat.

153 Cf. Timaeus a Calcidio translatus Corpus Platonicum Medii Aevi, Plato Latinus 4, ed. J. H. WASZINK (London 1975) 25.21, 40.21. Alexander Neckam De naturis rerum 2. prol. (WRIGHT ed. 125): ...figuram mundi dixerim rotundam, quamquam et in hoc perfectio conditoris eluceat...; 2.14 (Wright ed. 136): Per rotunditatem autem perfectio intelligitur. Medieval medical theories prescribed therapeutic bloodletting in order to remove superfluities. On the following, see HELMUT RIEDLINGER Die Makellosigkeit der Kirche in den lateinischen Hoheliedkommentaren des Mittelalters Beitraege zur Geschichte der Philosophie und Theologie des Mittelalters, Bd. 38, Heft 3 (Münster 1958) and ERMENEGILDO LIO S. Bonaventura e la questione autografa 'De superfluo' contenuta nel ms. di Assisi, Bibl. comun. 186, citata al Concilio Vat. II. Testo con Studio critico-letterario e dottrinale Lateranum N. S. 32,1-4 (Roma 1966).  Alexander of Hales has a questio de superfluite, which are quaestiones dealing with the delimitations of necessaria vitae, as do Stephan Langton, Godfrey of Poitiers (both unedited).  On the necessaria vitae, look at commentaries on Aristotles's Ethics and Bk I of the Politics.

154 The emperor holds a scepter in his right hand and the orb in his left on Staufer seals. Boncompagno here designates right and left from the subjective perspective (ie. an onlooker's); in Rota veneris 1 he employs the objective viepoint ('proper' right and left, in the terminology of art historians): ...regale sceptrum in manu dextra dominabiliter deferendo. For the general problem of descriptive perspective of right and left, see KURT REINDEL Die Briefe des Petrus Damiani MGH Briefe der deutschen Kaiserzeit (Munich 1983-1993) 3.90-99 (ep. 159) at 91-2, notes 5-8 with literature cited there, and my translation of De doctrina privilegiorum 1.9 at note 13.Such a study would make up part of a entire evalutation of Boncompagno's knowledge of ancient and medieval letter collections. He often demonstrates a profound knowledge of the letters of ancient Roman authors; whose direct influences on Boncompagno's works of ars dictandi often seem to be bounded by that genre, whether verse or prose letters. The only general study of the genre seems to be HERMANN PETER Der Brief in der römischen Literatur: litterargeschichtliche Untersuchungen und Zusammenfassungen Abhandlungen der Philol.-hist. Classe der Königl. Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissentschaften 20.3 (Leipzig 1901), see also the articles in PAULY-WISSOWA RE, Der Kleine Pauly and Lexikon der antike Welt. For the epistles of the New Testament, see OTTO ROLLER Das Formular der Paulischen Briefe. Ein Betrag zur Lehre von Antiken Briefe (Stuttgart 1933); A. HARNACK Die Briefsammlung des Apostels Paulus und die andern vorkonstantinischen christlichen Briefsammlungen (1926); HERMAN PROBST Paulus und der Brief (Tübingen 1991) 55-105.

157 Boncompagno may have influenced to include this passage by the version of this letter-exchange in Walter of Chatillon's Alexandreis 2.37-39, 43-44 (COLKER ed. 38-39):

Gloss on these verses: ymagine id est sigillo regali impresso ceris (COLKER ed. 374). Walter's source for this passage (Iulii Valerii Epitome 36ff.) makes no reference to Alexander's wax seal. -- Walter of Chatillon's poetry survives in few Italian manuscripts. The above-quoted lines are found in a Italian florilegium (Bern Stadtbibliothek 710, ca. 1200, prov. S. Maria de Prato) and in two thirteenth-century manuscripts from Florence (Laurenz. Plut. xxxiv 48 and Strozz. 138). Walter's poetry is quoted in the Elegia of Enrico da Settimello, the most famous living Tuscan poet of Boncompagno's youth. Settimello lies only a few kilometers from Signa and Enrico shared with Boncompagno the patronage of the Haymar Monachus, himself a Florentine poet--on whom, see above Oliva 7.1 and below, 10.15 and 37.1. In addition, we know that Walter of Chatillon visited Bologna ca. 1170, where he delivered an oration in prose and verse to the studium--possibly an influence on the prologue of the Boncompagnus, which was also recited before the studium. See also above, Oliva 1.1.

158Praeexercitamenta Prisciani grammatici ex Hermogena versa 11, in HALM Rhetori Latini minores 555 ff. (also in KEIL Grammatici Latini 3.430 ff.): quaestio (thesis) of the genusiudiciale: an pilae formam habeat mundus? Cf. also Pseudo-Bede De mundi celestis terrestrisque constitutione ed. CHARLES BURNETT (London 1985) Warburg Institute surveys and texts, v. 10 [ca. 1200].

159 See JOSEF DEER, "Der Globus des spätrömischen und des byzantischen Kaisers. Symbol oder Insigne?" Byzanz und das abendländische Herrschaft Vorträge und Forschungen 21 (Sigmaringen 1977) 70-124.

159a Aside from this mention of children's balls, this also calls to mind the Roman children's bullae praetextae.  Cf. WILLIAM THAYER's website, Lacus Curtius: "The word bulla is Latin for "bubble", and thence for a number of bubble-shaped objects (including a boss as on the bronze doors of the Pantheon).   The most frequent meaning of the word, though, applies to the bulla praetexta, a pendant worn by children as a necklace. At first, only by patrician children, the ornament was of gold; it surely must have meant "Lay one finger on this child, and you'll be dealing with some powerful people." Later, every free-born child wore one: the plebeian bulla was of leather.    When the child came of age, apparently at no strict date, but traditionally during the Liberalia in the month of March following her 12th or his 14th year, the bulla was ceremonially laid aside; boys also abandoned the toga praetexta and put on the toga virilis. The bulla was on that occasion dedicated to the Lares."

160 For the system of authenticating papal bulls by their number of puncta, see Registrum Innocentii III 13.54 (PL ), which was misunderstood by MABILLON (De re diplomatica 624). LEOPOLD DELISLE "Memoire sur les actes d'Innocent III" BEC ser.4 4 (1858) 47-8 was the first to cite the explanation of Martin of Troppau's Summa decreti et decretalium at Liber X.5.20.5 (LUDWIG SCHMUGGE is preparing an edition of Martinus Polonus). R. L. POOLE Lectures on the History of the Papal Chancery (Cambridge 1915) 120: "In the course of time a fixed number of dots were required to surround the circumference, to mark off the heads from the space occupied by the Cross, and to fill in the head and beard of St. Peter; and as these dots were increased or diminished in different pontificates, to count them furnished a test of genuineness." See also DIEKAMP MIOG 3.613-626, 4.530-534, L. SCHMITZ-RHEIDT MIOG 17 (1896) 65, and HARRY BRESSLAU Handbuch der Urkundenlehre 2.610-611. --- See also above, Oliva 9.16 and Conrad of Mure Summa de arte dictandi 14.6.2.1 (KRONBICHLER ed. 167).

161 For the techniques of medieval letters: GILES CONSTABLE Letters and Letter Collections (Turhout 1976); KURT REINDEL "Studien..." 1 52ff; HARTMUT HOFFMANN "Zum mittelalterlichen Brieftechnik in Spiegel der Geschichte" in Festgabe für Max Braubach (Munster 1964) 141-170; specifically on letters of German kings: CARL ERDMANN "Untersuchungen zu den Briefen Henrichs IV" Archiv für Urkundenforschung 16 (1939) 184-253. GIROLAMO ARNALDI is preparing a extensive study on surviving medieval original letters, see Gazette du livre medieval 23 (1993) XXX.


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© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998
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