Oliva 19
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[19.1] Having placed first a treatise on the privileges of the popes, and of all those clerics who may legally make privileges, I turn my pen231 to treating the privileges of the emperor and of kings, and of those princes to whom it is legal to grant privileges, desiring to assign in brief scope those titles, preambles and narrations which should be placed in these according to rule.

[19.2] After the death of the undefeated emperor Henry,232 who had obtained the kingdom of Sicily,233 there arose between two princes234 a dispute for the empire to be gained, which has not yet been definitively fought out. Therefore, I place the first letter of the alphabet235 for the one who will triumph, so that it should typically represent the name of him who will obtain the Roman empire.

[19.3] Yet I believe it may still be decided on one of the parties from the trebled knot and let it be done from the midst.236

[19.4] The emperor of the Romans, who rules or ought to rule the entire planet, should place in his privileges this title: A., by the grace of God or by the favor of divine clemency, august emperor of the Romans. But if he should not yet have become emperor, he says august king of the Romans.

[19.5] Nothing else is put in the title, unless he grants a privilege to churches, hospitals or to monastic persons.237 Then In the name of the holy and individual Trinity is placed in front of the title. Thereafter is written the following sign or one similar: .SS., afterwards one embellished238 and interlaced 'C', which presents the name of an imaginary Caesar.239 For every Roman emperor is said to be Caesar,240 and every king of Egypt is Pharaoh. The Byzantine governer ruling in Morroco is called Miramominum,241 whom we name Maximultum.242 And these signs are not put in all privileges, but only in some.

[19.6] I do not know for what purpose these are placed. Nevertheless, I believe they are placed either for a latent sign or for a paragraph. Perhaps they are the signs of some notary or scribe, who was accustomed to sign in this way the privileges which he wrote. But an embellished cross should rightfully be placed before the Lord's invocation.

[19.7] The preamble follows immediately after the placing of the aforesaid title. After the preamble he names that person or persons to whom he grants the privilege, just as I say below.243

[19.8] But it could be questioned, since the emperor always says 'forever august' in the titles of his letters, and always places the names of recipients in these titles, why does he not maintain the same order in privileges?244 A crowd of fools assert that this is merely a custom of the imperial court, and I have never discovered anyone who has suggested otherwise.

[19.9] To that question I respond, that this placement of the imperial title ensues not from custom, but from a source of great justice. For the emperor sees that the empire is perpetual, but his own office is transitory and fleeting,245 since anyone holds it for a short time. Thus he sometimes says 'The transitory office of the kingdom'246 in the preambles of privileges, and therefore he does not say 'and forever' before 'august', nor does he say 'in perpetuity'.

[19.10] Or, he does not say 'in perpetuity' because he has no certainty about the constancy of his successors.247 For that which one builds up, the other destroys, and that which one approves, the other abhors.248

[19.11] Or, he does not say 'in perpetuity', so that he can take away grants which have been made,, no matter to whom, he can restore those which have been taken away, and he can exchange temporal possessions, according to that which pleases his will.

[19.12] He does not put the names of the recipients in the titles of privileges, because he does not place 'in perpetuity' afterwards, nor does he cause any verb of granting or permitting to be inferred.

[19.13] If it is questioned which verb should be inferred in the previous title, it can be responded that a verb of being should be inferred. For in the arch of triumph at Rome, which is next to the Cartularium249 (where the arch of federation is),250 the words 'The Roman senate and people' are inscribed in marble letters, and no verb is placed there.251

[19.14] Whence it seems that a verb of being ought to be understood here, for honor of the senate252 and Roman people. These word or similar are written in many places throughout Rome,253 and a verb is not placed anywhere. Thus it seems that this ought to be understood in place of the emperor.254

[19.15] For the verb of being255 is the most honorable of all verbs,256 because, when it is placed with a relative <pronoun>, it signifies the divine essence,257 just as is had in the Old Testament, where it is said 'You are He, Who is, Who sent me', and in the New Testament, 'I am who I am'.258

[19.16] But a verb of permitting and granting can be here inferred in a wider sense.259

[19.17] After placing a title, the dictator begins or can begin to deliver a preamble in this way.

[19.18] Since it befits the imperial majesty to preserve and nurture unharmed the rights of all persons with the muniment of his magnitude, it is right that we, who preside over the Roman empire through divine accomplishment, should condescend to just petitions and provide for everyone with both general statutes and with private laws, so that spiritual and secular persons shall remain content in their own rights.

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231 The oral equivalent of this phrase (converto sermonem) appears in Boncompagnus prol. 3.1 and 1.20.5.

232 Henry VI died 28 September 1197. The signature of his charters read 'Signum domini Henrici Romanorum imperatoris invictissimi'.

233 See Liber de obsidione Ancone (ZIMOLO ed. 50.1): post mortem videlicet imperatoris Henrici, qui regnum Sicilie obtinuit.

234 Philipp of Swabia (8 March 1198-21 June 1208), Otto of Brunswick (9 Juni 1198-1218). Although here Boncompagno speaks of two contestants, three candidates seem to be suggested at Oliva 19.3 (although triplici may not mean 'treble', see note 236 below).

235 Cf. the littere formate: Gratian's Decretum D.73, Regino von Prum Libri duo de synodalibus causis (WASSERSCHLEBEN ed. 199), Ivo of Chartres Decretum 6.433, Anselm of Lucca 6.121, Burchard of Worms Decretum 2.227. See also below, Oliva 36.1.

236 A 'triple knotted conflict' over the imperial crown would include the the young Frederic II, as does the Deliberatio domini pape Innocentii super facto imperii de tribus electis (RNI ed. FRIEDRICH KEMPF, no. 29). Is Boncompagno suggesting Frederic II as a compromise candidate with 'de medio fiat'? For usage, see also below, Oliva 4.2, Mirra 9.1, Boncompagnus 4.4.30, 5.20.1 §9, 6.12.2. This phrase is often applied to death, as in 'de medio (vite)'. But triplici need not literally mean 'trebled': see Liber de obsidione Ancone (ZIMOLO ed. 27, note 1): 'tripertita' va preso in senso generico di 'diviso', 'distribuita', ma non specificamente 'in tre parti'; and above, Oliva 9.19 and below 42.8. Depending on one's interpretation of it, Oliva 19.3 may be important for dating the text.

237 Contrary to Boncompagno's scheme, chrismon and invocatio were also used in Staufer grants to lay recipients. On the lack of addressees in imperial diplomas, see above, Oliva 5.5, below 19.8, 50.1.

238 For the epigraphic littere punctate, see Boncompagnus 1.27.8: Sed olim fiebant sculpture mirabiles in marmoribus electissimis cum litteris punctatis, quas hodie plenarie legere vel intelligere non valemus. This letter form was less common in papal charters: BEATE KRUSKE "Zeilen, Ränder und Initiale. Zur Normierung des Layouts hochmittelalterlicher Papsturkunden" in PETER RüCK ed. Mabillons Spur: Zweiundzwanzig Miszellen aus dem Fachgebiet für Historische Hilfswissenschaften der Philipps-Universität Marburg, zum 80. Geburtstag von Walter Heinemeyer (Marburg 1992) 231-245 at 233, note 10: "Vereinzelt finden sich im 12. Jh. Papstnamensinitialen, die sich diesen drei Gruppen nicht eindeutig zuordnen lassen, etwa geschwärzte Initialen, die an den Schäften und Balken mit Knoten oder dicken schwarzen Punkten verziert wurden. Solche Fälle wurden in der Gruppe 'andere Variante' zusammmengefasst." For the crux punctata, see above, Oliva 9.2, 10.4.

239 According to medieval legend, 100 days before his assassination a lightning bolt struck the column of Julius Caesar (columpna Iulia or Aculea: Vatican obelisk), erasing the 'C' in his name (Gaius? or Caesar?). Cf. Martin of Troppau Chronicon (MGH SS 22.406). On this column, see Boncompagnus 1.27.4 and W. HAFTMANN Das italienische Säulenmonument (Leipzig 1939) 65-66; on the assassination of Julius Caesar: Boncompagnus prol. 3.10. For another juxtaposition of epigraphy and diplomatic, see below, Oliva 19.13-14.

240 'Caesar' is used generically in Boncompagnus 1.23.3 §7, 2.2.1, 3.4.5 §1, 4.5.4 and 5.22.3 §4; it is used of the contemporary German emperors in Boncompagnus 1.23.3 §7, 1.25.10, 3.4.5 §1, 4.4.1 and Rhetorica novissima

241 Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad al-Nasir, Emir al-Mu'minin of Morocco, fourth Almohaden in North Africa and Spain (1199-1213). See Encyclopedie de L'Islam 3.937 (Paris 1936) and GIULIO CIPOLLONE Christianita--Islam: Cattivita e liberazione in nome di Dio. Il tempo di Innocenzo III dopo 'il 1187' (Rome 1992) 348, 426-9, 506 (document no. 26).

242 See Palma 45, Boncompagnus 4.2.5, 4.4.3 and KARL-ERNST LUPPRIAN Die Beziehungen der Päpste zu islamischen und mongolischen Herrschern im 13. Jahrhundert anhand ihres Briefwechsels (Citta del Vaticano, Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1981) Studi e testi, 291.

243 Below, Oliva 33.1.

244 For a discussion of the epithet of 'et semper' added to 'augustus' in Staufer titles, ULRICH SCHMIDT Königswahl und Thronfolge im 12. Jahrhundert (Cologne/Vienna 1987) 97-100, 147-151. For the lack of addressees in imperial diplomas, see above, Oliva 19.4-5.

245 The background of this expression is Cicero De amicitia 102 (res humanae fragiles caducaeque sunt). A closer match is Alexander Neckam In Ecclesiasten 1.2 (Cambridge, Trinity College, R.16.4, fol. 119vb; v. Eccl. 1.2) : Cum enim animus humanus fragilitatem humane conditionis in libro experientie assidue legat, docet hominem se ipsum parvipendere et condempnere. Incipere namque debet homo a seipso, ut se miserum esse et infinitis vanitatibus obnoxium addiscat, deinde mundana caduca et transitoria et frivola esse sentiat, demum quadam felici mentis extasi in amorem conditoris sui rapiatur, and in 1.9 (fol. 133vb): Quam enim spem tibi prebere potuerunt res fugitive, res caduce, res transitorie, res tot et tantis vanitatibus obnoxie? --- Cf. also transitoria fugeret et caduca (Boncompagnus 5.1.16); other doublets with transitoria: transitoria et fugitiva (Quinque tabule salutationum 2.18), temporalem vel transitoria (Boncompagnus 1.22.2), transitoria gloria et dubitabili munere (Boncompagnus 1.25.5). On this theme, see ERNST KANTOROWICZ The King's Two Bodies (Princeton 1957).

246 DDF.I.111, 116, 374 and +1070. Cf. Mirra 1.3 and below Oliva 25.2.

247 On the succession plans of Barbarossa and Henry VI, see ULRICH SCHMIDT Königswahl und Thronfolge im 12. Jahrhundert (Cologne 1987), PETER CSENDES Heinrich VI. (Darmstadt 1993) 171-78 and below, Oliva 50.3.

248 See Quinque tabule salutationum 4.31: et quod unus approbat, alter sepenumero vituperat.

249 On the Turris cartularia, which was a possession of the Frangipani family at the time of the Oliva, see AINO KATERMAA OTTELA Le casetorri medievali in Roma Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 67 (Helsinki 1981) 60-61. The 'locus chartularii' was pictured on Staufer seals; Rome is represented as the area near the Coliseum. For the tower's connections with the papal archives, F. EHRLE S.J. "Die Frangipanen und der Untergang des Archivs und der Bibliothek der Päpste am Anfang des 13. Jahrhunderts" Melanges offerts a M. Emile Chatelain (Paris 1910) 448-484. The Frangipani were styled 'comes palatini Lateranenses', PHILIPPE LAUER Le Palais de Latran (Paris 1911) 191; on them see Isagogue 1.36-37 and MATHIAS THUMSER "Die Frangipane" QFIAB 71 (1991) 106-163.

250 The arch of Titus, located west of the Colosseum and southwest of S. Maria Nova. See Liber de obsidione Ancone (ZIMOLO ed. 7.5-8), M. PFANNER Der Titusbogen (Mainz 1983) and SANDRO DE MARIA Gli archi onorari di Roma e della Italia (Rome 1988), H.U. INSTINSKY Philologus 97 (1948) 370ff.

251 This inscription is on the east side of the arch of Titus: SENATVS | POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS | DIVO TITO, DIVI VESPASIANI F(ILIO), | VESPASIANO AVGVSTO. Cf. Corpus inscriptionum latinarum 6.943 n. 945 (Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 265), Josephus Iud. 7.17.; IP 1.178-183. Apart from the question of the 'missing verb' in salutations (see above Oliva 7.7), such inscriptions also provided additional evidence that in ancient practice of address the sender's name came first (on which see Quinque tabule salutationum 1.27). For the formulas of address in Latin epigraphy, see G. WALSER Die Einseidler Inschriftensammlung (Stuttgart 1987).

252 Boncompagno on the Roman senate: Quinque tabule salutationum 5.7-8, Isagoge 1.38-39, Rhetorica novissima 9.4.8. See also FRANCO BARTOLINI ed. Codice diplomatico del Senato Romano dal MCXLIV al MCCCXLVII 1. Fonte per la storia d'Italia 87 (Rome 1948).

253 For the influence of 'SPQR' inscriptions on the Roman commune, see INGRID BAUMGARTEN "Rombeherrschung und Romerneuerung: Die römische Kommune im 12. Jahrhundert" QFIAB 69 (1989) 27-79 at 36, note 23.

254 See ERNST KANTORWICZ "Nomen imperatoris" in Selected Studies (Locust Valley N.Y, 1965).

255 On the verbum substantivum in grammar and the Old Logic, see R.W. HUNT "Studies on Priscian in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. I. Petrus Helias and his Predecessors" Medieval and Renaissance Studies 1 (1941) 194-231 at 220-231 and NORMANN KRETZMANN "The Culmination of the Old Logic in Peter Abelard" in Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century edd. ROBERT L. BENSON and GILES CONSTABLE (Los Angeles 1982) 488-511.

256 Cf. the gloss idoneiores ad D. Apud Boethium idoneius est predicatum quam subiectum in constituenda propositione (the gloss cites Boethius De sillogismo categorico, PL 64.798C).

257 Cf. Prima collectio decretalium Innocentii tertii 1.1. (PL 216.1175-1179 at 1175D, Po. 1199, Dec. 1200): Porro cum in persona divina non sit nisi relatio vel essentia, si persona divina proprium nomen haberet, illud utique relationem vel essentiam designaret.

258 Both quotes are from Exod. 3.14. For the Gospels, cf. Marc. 13.6, 14.62, Luc. 21.8, 22.70, 24.36,39, Ioh. 4.26, 8.28, 8.58, 9.9, 13.19, 18.5,6,8; also Apoc. 1.4, 1.8, 4.8, 11.7).

259 For analysis of the missing verbs in salutations, see above Oliva 7.7, 19.12 and Quinque tabule salutationum 2.17-19.

© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998

Scrineum © Università di Pavia 1999