Oliva 48-49 
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[48.1] Because I have composed many preambles in the treatise on privileges, which can be placed in confirmations with a little variation, therefore to avoid prolixity I shall append as a note to this work one entire confirmation according to the form of the Roman church.


[49.1] Innocent servant of the servants of God, to the beloved son H.,320 bishop-elect of Bologna, greetings and apostolic benediction. 

[49.2] The piety and dignity of the office undertaken leads and induces us that we must more weightily love devoted and humble sons by assenting to their just petitions, so that, strengthened by the kindliness of the apostolic see, they may glory in apostolic grace and favor, and they shall recognize that the sacrosanct Roman church is a unique mother, which protects them from the assaults of the wicked and makes each person remain content with his own rights.

[49.3] Hence it is, O beloved son in the Lord, that we confirm your petition by apostolic letter, considering equitable and favorable the election which the Bolognese cathedral chapter recently made concerning you.

[49.4] But if anyone shall rashly presume to violate this page of our confirmation, may he know that he has incurred the indignation of almighty God and of saints Peter and Paul.321 

[49.5] Dated etc. 

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320 Henricus de Fratta, bishop of Bologna (1213-1240), on which see LORENZO PAOLINI art. "Della Fratta, Enrico" in DBI 37 (1989) 1-5. Although Gerardus Ariosti was the newly elected bishop of Bologna when the Oliva was written--close to the end of the twelfth century---this initial was updated in all manuscripts from 'G.' to 'H.' fifteen years later, because Gerard had finally been forced to resign in disgrace. For the deposition of Gerardus Ariosti (bishop of Bologna 1198-1213), see LORENZO PAOLINI "L'evoluzione di una funzione ecclesiastica: l'arcidiacono e lo Studio a Bologna nel XIII secolo" Studi medievali n.s. 29 (1988) 129-172 at 139. PAOLINI's discussion of the charges made against Gerard does not include the supporting evidence of Boncompagnus 3.5.1, which details how Gerard 'stole' his episcopal election in 1198, with the help of the canon Bonaguisa. However, that election account may well be entirely fictive, recast in the light of Gerard's 1213 deposition. Henricus de Fratta must have been present at the public readings of the Boncompagnus in 1215 and 1226.

321 A modified version of Briefkontextschlußform 20, Die Register Innocenz III edd. OTHMAR HAGENEDER and ANTON HAIDACHER (Graz-Cologne 1964) 1.xlvi.

© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998

Scrineum © Università di Pavia 1999