Oliva 6-7.7
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[6.1] Privileges should be made in this way. First you arrange the title of the privilege in this manner: Bishop Innocent,57 servant of the servants of God, to the beloved son in Christ, Philip,58 emperor of the Romans and forever august, and to his legitimately appointed successors, in perpetuity. Thus the pope addresses all kings, suitably changing those terms which should be changed.

[6.2] Note that some kings customarily place certain terms in the titles of privileges and letters which the pope does not state. The king of England puts this title in his privileges and letters: Richard59 by the grace of God, king of England, duke of Normandy and count of Poitou and Anjou. The pope does not enumerate all these offices, but says: beloved son in Christ, Richard king of the English or king of England.

[6.3] The king of Hungary calls himself in his titles: king of Pannonia, Dalmatia, Croatia, and of Steiermark,60 but the pope says: Henry61 king of the Hungarians or king of Hungary.62

[6.4] The king of Sicily first calls himself 'king', and thereafter enumerates other offices, of which the pope makes no mention, but simply names him 'king of Sicily'.

[6.5] He places dukes and other princes in the titles of privileges in this manner: Bishop Innocent etc., to the beloved son, duke of Austria63 and to his successors in perpetuity. The pope retains this form for dukes, marquises, counts, and all other magnates below kings.


[7.1] Patriarchs, archbishops and bishops <are titled> in this manner: Bishop Innocent etc., to the venerable brother Monachus,64 patriarch of the church of the holy Resurrection, and to his canonically installed successors, in perpetuity.

[7.2] The pope should state a title for any conventual church in this manner: Innocent etc., to the beloved sons, R.65 the abbot of Clairvaux and his present and future brethren, professing a monastic life or canonically appointed, in perpetuity. He retains this form for all collegial churches, changing the proper names of places and persons according to what must be changed.

[7.3] For cloistered nuns <it is stated> in this manner: Bishop Innocent etc., to the beloved in Christ sisters, abbess M. of S. Barbatian,66 and to her canonically appointed present and future sisters, in perpetuity.

[7.4] In privileges for Templars and Hospitallers67 he composes a title in this manner: Bishop Innocent etc., to the beloved sons, Wilbertus,68 master of the Temple, and to his regularly appointed brethren, both present and future, in perpetuity. He speaks in the same way to the master of the Hospital of Jerusalem,69 but he calls all other Hospitallers 'rectors' or 'hospitallers', otherwise retaining the form of this title.

[7.5] For any chaplain <it is stated> as follows: Innocent etc. to the beloved son, chaplain R.70 of S. Peter of Letore71 and his canonically appointed successors, in perpetuity.

[7.6] He says 'in perpetuity' because his grant is spiritual. For everything spiritual is perpetual, thus patriarchs, archbishops and bishops say 'in perpetuity' in the same way, because they principally grant spiritualities.72 The first Table of Salutations fully contains those whom he calls 'venerable brothers' and 'beloved sons'.73

[7.7] The pope is not accustomed to grant privileges to lower persons. In the title of any privilege, the verbs should not be understood as 'sending' or 'desiring'.74 Instead, only concessive or permissive verbs should be understood, such as 'he grants, permits or indulges.' 75

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57 Innocent III, pope (1198-1216).

58 Philipp of Swabia, claimant to the imperial title (1197-1207). References to this Thronstreit abound throughout the Oliva, but see especially below, 19.2-3.

59 Richard I, king of England (1189-6 April 1199).

60 Serbia was added to the Hungarian royal title in 1202: Codex diplomaticus Hungariae ecclesiasticus ac civilis ed. GEORGII FEJER (Budapest 1829) 2.389, to be replaced by GEORGIUS GYOERFFY ed. Diplomata Hungariae antiquissima: accedunt epistolae et acta ad historiam Hungariae pertinentia (Budapest 1992-, vol. 1 covers 1000-1131). On this title, see CONSTANTIN JIRECEK Geschichte der Serben (Gotha, 1911) 1.289 and GüNTER PRINZING Die Bedeutung Bulgariens und Serbiens in den Jahren 1204-1219 in Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung und Entwicklung der byzantinischen Teilstaaten nach der Einnahme Konstantinopels infolge des 4. Kreuzzuges (Munich 1972) 156. At the very latest, Boncompagno would have surely known about this change by the summer of 1207, when he held a long conversation with a former papal legate to Hungary (1204), Leo Brancaleonis, cardinal priest of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (1202-1224). Leo was then en route to Germany, where as papal legate he would handle the disputed royal election. On this conversation, see Boncompagnus 1.13.1 §3-§8. On Leo's 1204 legation to Hungary: JAMES ROSS SWEENEY "Innocent III, Hungary and the Bulgarian Coronation: A Study in Medieval Papal Diplomacy" Church History 42 (1973) 320-334 at 323-30, IDEM Papal-Hungarian relations during the pontificate of Innocent III, 1198-1216 (1971 Cornell PhD diss.) and Boncompagnus 3.14.1. Short biographies of Leo in DBI 13 (1971) 814-17 and in MALECZEK Papst und Kardinalskolleg 137-39.

61 Emmerich, king of Hungary (1196-1204), called Henricus in all his diplomas. For the custom of aspirating proper names beginning with vowels, see Boncompagnus 1.2.5. For papal diplomacy with the kings of Hungary, see JOHANNES FRIED Laienfürsten 261-263, 284-287. See also PL 215.340.

62 For the distinction, see BERND SCHNEIDMüLLER, "Herrscher über Land oder Leute? Der kapetische Herrschertitel in der Zeit Philipps II. August und seiner Nachfolger (1180-1270)" in Intitulatio III ed. HERWIG WOLFRAM and ANTON SCHARER MIÖG Erg. Bd. 29 (Wien 1988) 131-64.

63 See below, Oliva 52, for a fictive imperial confirmation of an royal election of the duke of Austria.

64 Haymerus Monachus (Aymar Monaco dei Corbizzi), patriarch of Jerusalem (1194-1202). He was archbishop of Caesarea 1182-1197, holding both offices for three years. From 1171-1177 Monachus was magister and chancellor of patriarch Amalrich of Jerusalem. See below, Oliva 10.15, 37.1.

65 Ruggero, abbot of S. Maria di Chiaravalle at Fiastra (1180-1200). See below, Oliva 34.19-25, IP 4.127-129, E. OVIDIO Le carte dell'abbazia di Chiaravalle di Fiastra Fonti per la storia delle Marche 1 (Ancona 1908) and O. GENTILI L'abbazia di S. Maria di Chiaravalle di Fiastra (Rome 1978).

66 S. Barbaziano, Bolognese nunnery, located at the corner of the present-day Via Cesare Battisti and Via Barbiera (FANTI Vie 157). There was also a foundation of this name in Ravenna: REINHOLD SCHUMANN "Decadenza e ascesa di Bologna e le sue chiese prima del 1100" in RENATO BORDONE and JöRG JARNUT L'evoluzione delle cittá italiane nell'XI secolo (Bologna 1988) 175-192 at 185, notes 26-7. For another reference to an abbess 'M.' of S. Barbaziano, see Quinque tabule salutationum 1.21.

67 Other aspects of papal charters to the Templars and Johanniters are also discussed below, Oliva 7.34, 8b.9, 8b.16; hospitals are additionally treated at 7.31-33, 8b.18, 18.15-17, 36.5. For papal diplomatics: RUDOLF HIESTAND Papsturkunden für Templer und Johanniter 2 vol. Abh. Gött., Phil.-hist Kl. 77 and 135 (Göttingen 1972, 1984). A preamble to an imperial charter for the Templars is given below at Oliva 29.1; for the Johanniters at 28.1

68 Wilbertus Erail, master of the Templars (1194-21 December 1200).

69 J. DELAVILLE LE ROULX Cartulaire General de l'Ordre des Hospitaliers de St. Jean de Jerusalem 4 vols. (Paris 1894-1906).

70 Not identified. On chapels and chaplains: below Oliva 8b.16, 10.17, 38.5, 42.5, 59.3, 60.1-5.

71 Parish church in the plebanus of S. Laurentius, Signa. See IP 3.54-56 nos. *1-*3; REPETTI Dizionario 1.363, 413, 416, 2.671.

72 See Oliva 19.8-12, 34.17, 44.5 and UDO WOLTER "Amt und officium im mittelalterlichen Quellen vom 13. bis 15. Jahrhundert" ZRG kan. abt. 105 (1988) 246-280 at 254-6. Guido Faba borrowed Boncompagno's argument in his Doctrina privilegiorum (ROCKINGER ed. 199).

73 Quinque tabule salutationum 1.8. See also Quinque tabule salutationum 4.11-15; Oliva, below 7.29-30, 8b.7, 10.16-18, 10.23-25, 18.2.

74 For the verba desiderativa, see J.B. HOFMANN and ANTON SZANTYR Lateinische Syntax und Stilistik (Munich 1972) 298.

75 See discussion of the missing verbs in salutations, see Quinque tabule salutationum 2.17-19, below Oliva 19.12, 19.16 and Thomas of Capua Ars dictandi 8 (ed. EMMY HELLER, SB Heidelberg, 1929) 19-20. In general, see CAROL DANA LANHAM Salutatio Formulas in Latin Letters to 1200: Syntax, Style, and Theory Münchner Beiträge zur Mediavistik und Renaissance-forschung 22 (Munich 1975).

© Steven M. Wight, Los Angeles 1998

Scrineum © Università di Pavia 1999